Discovery - University of Dundee - Online Publications

Library & Learning Centre

Journal of Cell Science

  1. A crucial role for β2 integrins in podosome formation, dynamics and Toll-like-receptor-signaled disassembly in dendritic cells

    Gawden-Bone, C., West, M. A., Morrison, V. L., Edgar, A. J., McMillan, S. J., Dill, B. D., Trost, M., Prescott, A., Fagerholm, S. C. & Watts, C. 1 Oct 2014 In : Journal of Cell Science. 127, 19, p. 4213-4224 12 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  2. The TLR and IL-1 signalling network at a glance

    Cohen, P. Jun 2014 In : Journal of Cell Science. 127, 11, p. 2383-2390 8 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  3. Time-resolved quantitative proteomics implicates the core snRNP protein SmB together with SMN in neural trafficking

    Prescott, A. R., Bales, A., James, J., Trinkle-Mulcahy, L. & Sleeman, J. E. 15 Feb 2014 In : Journal of Cell Science. 127, 4, p. 812-827 16 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  4. Type VII collagen regulates expression of OATP1B3, promotes front-to-rear polarity and increases structural organisation in 3D spheroid cultures of RDEB tumour keratinocytes

    Dayal, J. H. S., Cole, C. L., Pourreyron, C., Watt, S. A., Lim, Y. Z., Salas-Alanis, J. C., Murrell, D. F., McGrath, J. A., Stieger, B., Jahoda, C., Leigh, I. M. & South, A. P. 15 Feb 2014 In : Journal of Cell Science. 127, 4, p. 740-751 12 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  5. PML isoforms in response to arsenic: high-resolution analysis of PML body structure and degradation

    Hands, K. J., Cuchet-Lourenco, D., Everett, R. D. & Hay, R. T. 15 Jan 2014 In : Journal of Cell Science. 127, 2, p. 365-375 11 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  6. AII amacrine cells discriminate between heterocellular and homocellular locations when assembling connexin36-containing gap junctions

    Meyer, A., Hilgen, G., Dorgau, B., Sammler, E. M., Weiler, R., Monyer, H., Dedek, K. & Hormuzdi, S. G. 2014 In : Journal of Cell Science. 127, 6, p. 1190-1202 13 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  7. Phosphorylation of Crm1 by CDK1-cyclin-B promotes Ran-dependent mitotic spindle assembly

    Wu, Z., Jiang, Q., Clarke, P. R. & Zhang, C. 1 Aug 2013 In : Journal of Cell Science. 126, 15, p. 3417-3428 12 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  8. A new kind of membrane-tethered eukaryotic transcription factor that shares an auto-proteolytic processing mechanism with bacteriophage tail-spike proteins

    Senoo, H., Araki, T., Fukuzawa, M. & Williams, J. G. 2013 In : Journal of Cell Science. n/a, 133231

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  9. Interactions and functions of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein at a glance

    Nelson, S. & Näthke, I. S. 2013 In : Journal of Cell Science. 126, 4, p. 873-877 5 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  10. Inn1 and Cyk3 regulate chitin synthase during cytokinesis in budding yeasts

    Devrekanli, A., Foltman, M., Roncero, C., Sanchez-Diaz, A. & Labib, K. 15 Nov 2012 In : Journal of Cell Science. 125, 22, p. 5453-5466 14 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  11. ZNRF2 is released from membranes by growth factors and with ZNRF1 regulates the Na+/K+ATPase

    Hoxhaj, G., Najafov, A., Toth, R., Campbell, D. G., Prescott, A. R. & MacKintosh, C. 1 Oct 2012 In : Journal of Cell Science. 125, 19, p. 4662-4675 14 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  12. ARNT controls the expression of epidermal differentiation genes through HDAC- and EGFR-dependent pathways

    Robertson, E. D., Weir, L., Romanowska, M., Leigh, I. M. & Panteleyev, A. A. 15 Jul 2012 In : Journal of Cell Science. 125, 14, p. 3320-3332 13 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  13. The DSPII splice variant is crucial for desmosome-mediated adhesion in HaCaT keratinocytes

    Cabral, R. M., Tattersall, D., Patel, V., McPhail, G. D., Hatzimasoura, E., Abrams, D. J., South, A. P. & Kelsell, D. P. 15 Jun 2012 In : Journal of Cell Science. 125, 12, p. 2853-2861 9 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  14. Re-replication induced by geminin depletion occurs from G2 and is enhanced by checkpoint activation

    Klotz-Noack, K., McIntosh, D., Schurch, N., Pratt, N. & Blow, J. J. 15 May 2012 In : Journal of Cell Science. 125, 10, p. 2436-2445 10 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  15. Cannabinoid receptors in submandibular acinar cells: functional coupling between saliva fluid and electrolytes secretion and Ca2+ signalling

    Kopach, O., Vats, J., Netsyk, O., Voitenko, N., Irving, A. & Fedirko, N. 15 Apr 2012 In : Journal of Cell Science. 125, 8, p. 1884-1895 12 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  16. The microtubule poison vinorelbine kills cells independently of mitotic arrest and targets cells lacking the APC tumour suppressor more effectively

    Klotz, D. M., Nelson, S. A., Kroboth, K., Newton, I. P., Radulescu, S., Ridgway, R. A., Sansom, O. J., Appleton, P. L. & Nathke, I. S. 15 Feb 2012 In : Journal of Cell Science. 125, P4, p. 887-95 9 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  17. Rab28 function in trypanosomes: interactions with retromer and ESCRT pathways

    Lumb, J. H., Leung, K. F., Dubois, K. N. & Field, M. C. 15 Nov 2011 In : Journal of Cell Science. 124, P22, p. 3771-3783 13 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  18. Phenotypes of pseudohypoaldosteronism type II caused by the WNK4 D561A missense mutation are dependent on the WNK-OSR1/SPAK kinase cascade

    Chiga, M., Rafiqi, F. H., Alessi, D. R., Sohara, E., Ohta, A., Rai, T., Sasaki, S. & Uchida, S. 1 May 2011 In : Journal of Cell Science. 124, 9, p. 1391-1395 5 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  19. Regulation of the NKCC2 ion cotransporter by SPAK-OSR1-dependent and -independent pathways

    Richardson, C., Sakamoto, K., de los Heros, P., Deak, M., Campbell, D. G., Prescott, A. R. & Alessi, D. R. 1 Mar 2011 In : Journal of Cell Science. 124, 5, p. 789-800 12 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  20. Clathrin recruits phosphorylated TACC3 to spindle poles for bipolar spindle assembly and chromosome alignment

    Fu, W., Tao, W., Zheng, P., Fu, J., Bian, M., Jiang, Q., Clarke, P. R. & Zhang, C. 1 Nov 2010 In : Journal of Cell Science. 123, 21, p. 3645-3651 7 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  21. Phosphorylation of STIM1 at ERK1/2 target sites modulates store-operated calcium entry

    Pozo-Guisado, E., Campbell, D. G., Deak, M., Alvarez-Barrientos, A., Morrice, N. A., Alvarez, I. S., Alessi, D. R. & Martin-Romero, F. J. 15 Sep 2010 In : Journal of Cell Science. 123, 18, p. 3084-3093 10 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  22. p38 gamma regulates interaction of nuclear PSF and RNA with the tumour-suppressor hDlg in response to osmotic shock

    Sabio, G., Cerezo-Guisado, M. I., del Reino, P., Inesta-Vaquera, F. A., Rousseau, S., Arthur, J. S. C., Campbell, D. G., Centeno, F. & Cuenda, A. 1 Aug 2010 In : Journal of Cell Science. 123, 15, p. 2596-2604 9 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  23. Dendritic cell podosomes are protrusive and invade the extracellular matrix using metalloproteinase MMP-14

    Gawden-Bone, C., Zhou, Z., King, E., Prescott, A., Watts, C. & Lucocq, J. 1 May 2010 In : Journal of Cell Science. 123, 9, p. 1427-1437 11 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  24. Dual regulation of a Dictyostelium STAT by cGMP and Ca2+ signalling

    Araki, T., van Egmond, W. N., van Haastert, P. J. M. & Williams, J. G. 15 Mar 2010 In : Journal of Cell Science. 123, 6, p. 837-841 5 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  25. Microtubule assembly by the Apc protein is regulated by importin-beta-RanGTP

    Dikovskaya, D., Li, Z., Newton, I. P., Davidson, I., Hutchins, J. R. A., Kalab, P., Clarke, P. R. & Nathke, I. S. 1 Mar 2010 In : Journal of Cell Science. 123, 5, p. 736-746 11 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  26. Ipl1-dependent phosphorylation of Dam1 is reduced by tension applied on kinetochores

    Keating, P., Rachidi, N., Tanaka, T. U. & Stark, M. J. R. 1 Dec 2009 In : Journal of Cell Science. 122, 23, p. 4375-4382 8 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  27. Collective cell migration in development

    Weijer, C. J. 15 Sep 2009 In : Journal of Cell Science. 122, 18, p. 3215-3223 9 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  28. Increased invasive behaviour in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma with loss of basement-membrane type VII collagen

    Martins, V. L., Vyas, J. J., Chen, M., Purdie, K., Mein, C. A., South, A. P., Storey, A., McGrath, J. A. & O'Toole, E. A. 1 Jun 2009 In : Journal of Cell Science. 122, 11, p. 1788-1799 12 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  29. Filaggrin in the frontline: role in skin barrier function and disease

    Sandilands, A., Sutherland, C., Irvine, A. D. & McLean, W. H. I. 1 May 2009 In : Journal of Cell Science. 122, 9, p. 1285-1294 10 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  30. A Dictyostelium homologue of the metazoan Cbl proteins regulates STAT signalling

    Langenick, J., Araki, T., Yamada, Y. & Williams, J. G. 1 Nov 2008 In : Journal of Cell Science. 121, 21, p. 3524-3530 7 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  31. The regulation of salt transport and blood pressure by the WNK-SPAK/OSR1 signalling pathway

    Richardson, C. & Alessi, D. R. 15 Oct 2008 In : Journal of Cell Science. 121, 20, p. 3293-3304 12 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  32. Novel self-association of the APC molecule affects APC clusters and cell migration

    Li, Z., Kroboth, K., Newton, I. P. & Nathke, I. S. 1 Jun 2008 In : Journal of Cell Science. 121, 11, p. 1916-1925 10 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  33. Activation of the thiazide-sensitive Na+-Cl- cotransporter by the WNK-regulated kinases SPAK and OSR1

    Richardson, C., Rafiqi, F. H., Karlsson, H. K. R., Moleleki, N., Vandewalle, A., Campbell, D. G., Morrice, N. A. & Alessi, D. R. 1 Mar 2008 In : Journal of Cell Science. 121, 5, p. 675-684 10 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  34. TPL2-mediated activation of ERK1 and ERK2 regulates the processing of pre-TNF alpha in LPS-stimulated macrophages

    Rousseau, S., Papoutsopoulou, M., Symons, A., Cook, D., Lucocq, J. M., Prescott, A. R., O'Garra, A., Ley, S. C. & Cohen, P. 15 Jan 2008 In : Journal of Cell Science. 121, 2, p. 149-154 6 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  35. RCC1 isoforms differ in their affinity for chromatin, molecular interactions and regulation by phosphorylation

    Hood, F. E. & Clarke, P. R. 1 Oct 2007 In : Journal of Cell Science. 120, Pt 19, p. 3436-45 10 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  36. A regulatory role for CRM1 in the multi-directional trafficking of splicing snRNPs in the mammalian nucleus

    Sleeman, J. 1 May 2007 In : Journal of Cell Science. 120, 9, p. 1540-50 11 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  37. Localization of agonist-sensitive PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 reveals a nuclear pool that is insensitive to PTEN expression

    Lindsay, Y., McCoull, D., Davidson, L., Leslie, N. R., Fairservice, A., Gray, A., Lucocq, J. & Downes, C. P. Dec 2006 In : Journal of Cell Science. 119, 24, p. 5160-5168 9 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  38. Diverse physiological functions for dual-specificity MAP kinase phosphatases

    Dickinson, R. J. & Keyse, S. M. 15 Nov 2006 In : Journal of Cell Science. 119, P22, p. 4607-15 9 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  39. Nucleolar protein upstream binding factor is sequestered into adenovirus DNA replication centres during infection without affecting RNA polymerase I location or ablating rRNA synthesis

    Lawrence, F. J., McStay, B. & Matthews, D. A. Jun 2006 In : Journal of Cell Science. 119, 12, p. 2621-2631 11 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  40. Characterization of a novel ATR-dependent, Chk1-independent, intra-S-phase checkpoint that suppresses initiation of replication in Xenopus

    Luciani, M. G., Oehlmann, M. & Blow, J. J. 1 Dec 2004 In : Journal of Cell Science. 117, 25, p. 6019-30 12 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  41. Mechanical stress induces profound remodelling of keratin filaments and cell junctions in epidermolysis bullosa simplex keratinocytes

    Russell, D., Andrews, P. D., James, J. & Lane, E. B. Oct 2004 In : Journal of Cell Science. 117, 22, p. 5233-5243 11 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  42. Human keratin 8 mutations that disturb filament assembly observed in inflammatory bowel disease patients

    Owens, D. W., Wilson, N. J., Hill, A. J. M., Rugg, E. L., Porter, R. M., Hutcheson, A. M., Quinlan, R. A., van Heel, D., Parkes, M., Jewell, D. P., Campbell, S. S., Ghosh, S., Satsangi, J. & Lane, E. B. Apr 2004 In : Journal of Cell Science. 117, 10, p. 1989-1999 11 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  43. APC at a glance

    Nathke, I. 2004 In : Journal of Cell Science. 117, Pt 21, p. 4873-4875 3 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  44. DNA replication licensing in somatic and germ cells

    Eward, K. L., Obermann, E. C., Shreeram, S., Loddo, M., Fanshawe, T., Williams, C., Jung, H-I., Prevost, A. T., Blow, J. J., Stoeber, K. & Williams, G. H. 2004 In : Journal of Cell Science. 117, Pt 24, p. 5875-86 12 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  45. A STAT-regulated, stress-induced signalling pathway in Dictyostelium

    Araki, T., Tsujioka, M., Abe, T., Fukuzawa, M., Meima, M., Schaap, P., Morio, T., Urushihara, H., Katoh, M., Maeda, M., Tanaka, Y., Takeuchi, I. & Williams, J. G. Jul 2003 In : Journal of Cell Science. 116, 14, p. 2907-2915 9 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  46. Protein phosphatase 4 interacts with the survival of motor neurons complex and enhances the temporal localisation of snRNPs

    Carnegie, G. K., Sleeman, J. E., Morrice, N., Hastie, C. J., Peggie, M. W., Philp, A., Lamond, A. I. & Cohen, P. T. W. May 2003 In : Journal of Cell Science. 116, 10, p. 1905-1913 9 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  47. Lack of plakophilin 1 increases keratinocyte migration and reduces desmosome stability

    South, A. P., Wan, H., Stone, M. G., Dopping-Hepenstal, P. J. C., Purkis, P. E., Marshall, J. F., Leigh, I. M., Eady, R. A. J., Hart, I. R. & McGrath, J. A. 2003 In : Journal of Cell Science. 116, 16, p. 3303-3314 12 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  48. Observation of keratin particles showing fast bidirectional movement colocalized with microtubules

    Liovic, M., Mogensen, M. M., Prescott, A. R. & Lane, E. B. 2003 In : Journal of Cell Science. 116, 8, p. 1417-1427 11 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  49. The chromosome replication cycle

    Diffley, J. F. X. & Labib, K. 1 Mar 2002 In : Journal of Cell Science. 115, 5, p. 869-872 4 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  50. Essential functions of Sds22p in chromosome stability and nuclear localization of PP1

    Peggie, M., MacKelvie, S., Bloecher, A., Knatko, E., Tatchell, K. & Stark, M. 2002 In : Journal of Cell Science. 115, 1, p. 195-206 12 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  51. Keratin mutations of epidermolysis bullosa simplex alter the kinetics of stress response to osmotic shock

    D'Alessandro, M., Russell, D., Morley, S. M., Davies, A. M. & Lane, E. B. 2002 In : Journal of Cell Science. 115, 22, p. 4341-4351 11 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  52. Mammalian nuclei become licensed for DNA replication during late telophase

    Dimitrova, D. S., Prokhorova, T. A., Blow, J. J., Todorov, I. T. & Gilbert, D. M. 2002 In : Journal of Cell Science. 115, 1, p. 51-59 9 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  53. Mucin-like molecules form a negatively charged coat that protects Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes from killing by human anti-alpha-galactosyl antibodies

    Pereira-Chioccola, V. L., Acosta-Serrano, A., de Almeida, I. C., Ferguson, M. A. J., Souto-Padron, T., Rodrigues, M. M., Travassos, L. R. & Schenkman, S. Apr 2000 In : Journal of Cell Science. 113, 7, p. 1299-1307 9 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  54. A fission yeast general translation factor reveals links between protein synthesis and cell cycle controls

    Grallert, B., Kearsey, S. E., Lenhard, M., Carlson, C. R., Nurse, P., Boye, E. & Labib, K. 2000 In : Journal of Cell Science. 113, 8, p. 1447-1458 12 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  55. Dynamic, Rho1p-dependent localization of Pkc1p to sites of polarized growth

    Andrews, P. D. & Stark, M. J. R. 2000 In : Journal of Cell Science. 113, 15, p. 2685-2693 9 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  56. Fa1p is a 171 kDa protein essential for axonemal microtubule severing in Chlamydomonas

    Finst, R. J., Kim, P. J., Griffis, E. R. & Quarmby, L. M. 2000 In : Journal of Cell Science. 113, 11, p. 1963-71 9 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  57. The replication capacity of intact mammalian nuclei in Xenopus egg extracts declines with quiescence, but the residual DNA synthesis is independent of Xenopus MCM proteins

    Sun, W., Hola, M., Pedley, K., Tada, S., Blow, J. J., Todorov, I. T., Kearsey, S. E. & Brooks, R. F. 2000 In : Journal of Cell Science. 113 , 4, p. 683-695 13 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  58. Changes in association of the Xenopus origin recognition complex with chromatin on licensing of replication origins

    Rowles, A., Tada, S. & Blow, J. J. 1999 In : Journal of Cell Science. 112 , 12, p. 2011-2018 8 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  59. The role of the Ran GTPase in nuclear assembly and DNA replication: characterisation of the effects of Ran mutants

    Hughes, M., Zhang, C., Avis, J. M., Hutchison, C. J. & Clarke, P. R. 1 Jan 1998 In : Journal of Cell Science. 111, 20, p. 3017-3026 10 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  60. Distinct nuclear assembly pathways for lamins A and C lead to their increase during quiescence in Swiss 3T3 cells

    Pugh, G. E., Coates, P. J., Lane, E. B., Raymond, Y. & Quinlan, R. A. 1997 In : Journal of Cell Science. 110, 19, p. 2483-2493 11 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  61. Both cyclin A and cyclin E have S-phase promoting (SPF) activity in Xenopus egg extracts

    Strausfeld, U. P., Howell, M., Descombes, P., Chevalier, S., Rempel, R. E., Adamczewski, J., Maller, J. L., Hunt, T. & Blow, J. J. 1 Jun 1996 In : Journal of Cell Science. 109, 6, p. 1555-1563 9 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  62. MAP kinase does not inactivate, but rather prevents the cyclin degradation pathway from being turned on in Xenopus egg extracts

    Abrieu, A., Lorca, T., Labbé, J-C., Morin, N., Keyse, S. & Dorée, M. 1996 In : Journal of Cell Science. 109, 1, p. 239-246 8 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  63. Mutations which block the binding of calmodulin to Spc110p cause multiple mitotic defects

    Stirling, D. A., Rayner, T. F., Prescott, A. R. & Stark, M. J. R. 1996 In : Journal of Cell Science. 109, p. 1297-1310 14 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  64. Interaction of cdc2 and rum1 regulates Start and S-phase in fission yeast

    LABIB, K., MORENO, S. & NURSE, P. Oct 1995 In : Journal of Cell Science. 108, p. 3285-3294 10 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  65. XCL100, an inducible nuclear MAP kinase phosphatase from Xenopus laevis: its role in MAP kinase inactivation in differentiated cells and its expression during early development

    Lewis, T., Groom, L. A., Sneddon, A. A., Smythe, C. & Keyse, S. M. 1995 In : Journal of Cell Science. 108, 8, p. 2885-96 12 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  66. Regulation of cell number in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract: the importance of apoptosis

    Hall, P. A., Coates, P. J., Ansari, B. & Hopwood, D. 1994 In : Journal of Cell Science. 107, 12, p. 3569-3577 9 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  67. Regulation of the cell cycle timing of Start in fission yeast by the rum1+ gene

    Moreno, S., Labib, K., Correa, J. & Nurse, P. 1994 In : Journal of Cell Science. p. 63-68 6 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  68. Cell surface oligosaccharides on Dictyostelium during development

    Amatayakul-Chantler, S., Ferguson, M. A. J., Dwek, R. A., Rademacher, T. W., Parekh, R. B., Crandall, I. E. & Newell, P. C. 1 Jul 1991 In : Journal of Cell Science. 99, 3, p. 485-495 11 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  69. Replication of purified DNA in Xenopus egg extract is dependent on nuclear assembly

    Blow, J. J. & Sleeman, A. M. Mar 1990 In : Journal of Cell Science. 95 , 3, p. 383-391 9 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  70. Replication occurs at discrete foci spaced throughout nuclei replicating in vitro

    Mills, A. D., Blow, J. J., White, J. G., Amos, W. B., Wilcock, D. & Laskey, R. A. Nov 1989 In : Journal of Cell Science. 94 , 3, p. 471-477 7 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Library & Learning Centre

Contact | Accessibility | Policy