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Asymmetry of the craniofacial skeleton in the parents of children with a cleft lip, with or without a cleft palate, or an isolated cleft palate

Asymmetry of the craniofacial skeleton in the parents of children with a cleft lip, with or without a cleft palate, or an isolated cleft palate

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Original languageEnglish
Pages177-185
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Journal of Orthodontics
Journal publication dateApr 2010
Journal number2
Volume32
DOIs
StatePublished

Abstract

The postero-anterior (PA) cephalograms of 52 parents of children with CL(P) and 40 parents of children with CP from a sample of 196 children with non-syndromic clefts in the west of Scotland were analysed. A conventional cephalometric asymmetry analysis was used to evaluate size-related right:left asymmetry comprising eight linear distances, nine angular, and three facial area measurements. Right:left ratios of the mean values identified the direction of the asymmetry and two-sample t-tests determined statistical significance. A shape-related asymmetry analysis was also undertaken. The configurations of landmarks were optimally superimposed and scaled using Procrustes algorithms. Euclidean distance matrix analysis (EDMA) was then compared and the shape of the left and the right landmark configurations were statistically tested using a non-parametric bootstrap technique.

For the parents of CL(P) children, size-related asymmetry was identified and the area of the craniofacial polygon was statistically significantly larger on the right than on the left side. EDMA detected the presence of shape-related asymmetry (T statistic = 1.304; P = 0.003). For the parents of CP children, although size-related asymmetry was identified, EDMA did not identify shape-related asymmetry (T statistic = 1.281; P = 0.065).

Size and shape directional asymmetries are characteristic features of the parental craniofacial skeleton in CL(P). Although directional size asymmetry is present in the parental craniofacial skeleton in CP, shape asymmetry is not a characteristic feature.

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