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Correlation of X-ray diffraction signatures of breast tissue and their histopathological classification

Correlation of X-ray diffraction signatures of breast tissue and their histopathological classification

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  • Robert M. Moss (Lead / Corresponding author)
  • Amany S. Amin
  • Chiaki Crews
  • Colin Purdie
  • Lee Jordan
  • Francesco Iacoviello
  • Andrew Evans
  • Robert D. Speller
  • Sarah Vinnicombe

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Original languageEnglish
Article number12998
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalScientific Reports
StatePublished - 11 Oct 2017


This pilot study examines the correlation of X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements with the histopathological analysis of breast tissue. Eight breast cancer samples were investigated. Each sample contained a mixture of normal and cancerous tissues. In total, 522 separate XRD measurements were made at different locations across the samples (8 in total). The resulting XRD spectra were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) in order to determine if there were any distinguishing features that could be used to identify different tissue components. 99.0% of the variation between the spectra were described by the first two principal components (PC). Comparing the location of points in PC space with the classification determined by histopathology indicated correlation between the shape/magnitude of the XRD spectra and the tissue type. These results are encouraging and suggest that XRD could be used for the intraoperative or postoperative classification of bulk tissue samples.

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    © The Author(s) 2017. Open Access. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Te images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit


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