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Exercise for depression

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Exercise for depression. / Mead, Gillian E. (Lead / Corresponding author); Morley, Wendy; Campbell, Paul; Greig, Carolyn A.; McMurdo, Marion; Lawlor, Debbie A.

In: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Vol. 2010, No. 1, CD004366, 2010, p. -.

Research output: Contribution to journalScientific review

Harvard

Mead, GE, Morley, W, Campbell, P, Greig, CA, McMurdo, M & Lawlor, DA 2010, 'Exercise for depression' Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol 2010, no. 1, CD004366, pp. -.

APA

Mead, G. E., Morley, W., Campbell, P., Greig, C. A., McMurdo, M., & Lawlor, D. A. (2010). Exercise for depression. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2010(1), -[CD004366]doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004366.pub4

Vancouver

Mead GE, Morley W, Campbell P, Greig CA, McMurdo M, Lawlor DA. Exercise for depression. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2010;2010(1):-. CD004366.

Author

Mead, Gillian E. (Lead / Corresponding author); Morley, Wendy; Campbell, Paul; Greig, Carolyn A.; McMurdo, Marion; Lawlor, Debbie A. / Exercise for depression.

In: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Vol. 2010, No. 1, CD004366, 2010, p. -.

Research output: Contribution to journalScientific review

Bibtex - Download

@article{5dc848afd53c48f89dfc5f3f028442bc,
title = "Exercise for depression",
author = "Mead, {Gillian E.} and Wendy Morley and Paul Campbell and Greig, {Carolyn A.} and Marion McMurdo and Lawlor, {Debbie A.}",
year = "2010",
volume = "2010",
number = "1",
pages = "--",
journal = "Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews",
issn = "1469-493X",

}

RIS (suitable for import to EndNote) - Download

TY - JOUR

T1 - Exercise for depression

A1 - Mead,Gillian E.

A1 - Morley,Wendy

A1 - Campbell,Paul

A1 - Greig,Carolyn A.

A1 - McMurdo,Marion

A1 - Lawlor,Debbie A.

AU - Mead,Gillian E.

AU - Morley,Wendy

AU - Campbell,Paul

AU - Greig,Carolyn A.

AU - McMurdo,Marion

AU - Lawlor,Debbie A.

PY - 2010

Y1 - 2010

N2 - <p>Background</p> <p>Depression is a common and important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Depression is commonly treated with antidepressants and/or psychotherapy, but some people may prefer alternative approaches such as exercise. There are a number of theoretical reasons why exercise may improve depression.</p> <p>Objectives</p> <p>To determine the effectiveness of exercise in the treatment of depression.</p> <p>Search strategy</p> <p>We searched Medline, Embase, Sports Discus, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for eligible studies in March 2007. In addition, we hand-searched several relevant journals, contacted experts in the field, searched bibliographies of retrieved articles, and performed citation searches of identified studies. We also searched www.controlled-trials.com in May 2008.</p> <p>Selection criteria</p> <p>Randomised controlled trials in which exercise was compared to standard treatment, no treatment or a placebo treatment in adults (aged 18 and over) with depression, as defined by trial authors. We excluded trials of post-natal depression.</p> <p>Data collection and analysis</p> <p>We calculated effect sizes for each trial using Cohen's method and a standardised mean difference (SMD) for the overall pooled effect, using a random effects model. Where trials used a number of different tools to assess depression, we included the main outcome measure only in the meta-analysis.</p> <p>Main results</p> <p>Twenty-eight trials fulfilled our inclusion criteria, of which 25 provided data for meta-analyses. Randomisation was adequately concealed in a minority of studies, most did not use intention to treat analyses and most used self-reported symptoms as outcome measures. For the 23 trials (907 participants) comparing exercise with no treatment or a control intervention, the pooled SMD was -0.82 (95% CI -1.12, -0.51), indicating a large clinical effect. However, when we included only the three trials with adequate allocation concealment and intention to treat analysis and blinded outcome assessment, the pooled SMD was -0.42 (95% CI -0.88, 0.03) i.e. moderate, nonsignificant effect. The effect of exercise was not significantly different from that of cognitive therapy. There was insufficient data to determine risks and costs.</p> <p>Authors' conclusions</p> <p>Exercise seems to improve depressive symptoms in people with a diagnosis of depression, but when only methodologically robust trials are included, the effect sizes are only moderate and not statistically significant. Further, more methodologically robust trials should be performed to obtain more accurate estimates of effect sizes, and to determine risks and costs. Further systematic reviews could be performed to investigate the effect of exercise in people with dysthymia who do not fulfil diagnostic criteria for depression.<br/> <strong>This review is published as a Cochrane Review in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 1. Cochrane Reviews are regularly updated as new evidence emerges and in response to comments and criticisms, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews should be consulted for the most recent version of the Review.</strong></p>

AB - <p>Background</p> <p>Depression is a common and important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Depression is commonly treated with antidepressants and/or psychotherapy, but some people may prefer alternative approaches such as exercise. There are a number of theoretical reasons why exercise may improve depression.</p> <p>Objectives</p> <p>To determine the effectiveness of exercise in the treatment of depression.</p> <p>Search strategy</p> <p>We searched Medline, Embase, Sports Discus, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for eligible studies in March 2007. In addition, we hand-searched several relevant journals, contacted experts in the field, searched bibliographies of retrieved articles, and performed citation searches of identified studies. We also searched www.controlled-trials.com in May 2008.</p> <p>Selection criteria</p> <p>Randomised controlled trials in which exercise was compared to standard treatment, no treatment or a placebo treatment in adults (aged 18 and over) with depression, as defined by trial authors. We excluded trials of post-natal depression.</p> <p>Data collection and analysis</p> <p>We calculated effect sizes for each trial using Cohen's method and a standardised mean difference (SMD) for the overall pooled effect, using a random effects model. Where trials used a number of different tools to assess depression, we included the main outcome measure only in the meta-analysis.</p> <p>Main results</p> <p>Twenty-eight trials fulfilled our inclusion criteria, of which 25 provided data for meta-analyses. Randomisation was adequately concealed in a minority of studies, most did not use intention to treat analyses and most used self-reported symptoms as outcome measures. For the 23 trials (907 participants) comparing exercise with no treatment or a control intervention, the pooled SMD was -0.82 (95% CI -1.12, -0.51), indicating a large clinical effect. However, when we included only the three trials with adequate allocation concealment and intention to treat analysis and blinded outcome assessment, the pooled SMD was -0.42 (95% CI -0.88, 0.03) i.e. moderate, nonsignificant effect. The effect of exercise was not significantly different from that of cognitive therapy. There was insufficient data to determine risks and costs.</p> <p>Authors' conclusions</p> <p>Exercise seems to improve depressive symptoms in people with a diagnosis of depression, but when only methodologically robust trials are included, the effect sizes are only moderate and not statistically significant. Further, more methodologically robust trials should be performed to obtain more accurate estimates of effect sizes, and to determine risks and costs. Further systematic reviews could be performed to investigate the effect of exercise in people with dysthymia who do not fulfil diagnostic criteria for depression.<br/> <strong>This review is published as a Cochrane Review in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 1. Cochrane Reviews are regularly updated as new evidence emerges and in response to comments and criticisms, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews should be consulted for the most recent version of the Review.</strong></p>

KW - RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED-TRIAL

KW - AEROBIC EXERCISE

KW - PHYSICAL-EXERCISE

KW - MENTAL-HEALTH

KW - OLDER-ADULTS

KW - CLINICAL DEPRESSION

KW - MAJOR DEPRESSION

KW - PSYCHIATRIC-PATIENTS

KW - ADJUNCTIVE TREATMENT

KW - MODERATE DEPRESSION

U2 - 10.1002/14651858.CD004366.pub4

DO - 10.1002/14651858.CD004366.pub4

M1 - Scientific review

JO - Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

JF - Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

SN - 1469-493X

IS - 1

VL - 2010

SP - -

ER -

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