Research output: Contribution to journal › Article
Myelin-associated inhibitors (MAIs) contribute to failed regeneration in the CNS. The intracellular signaling pathways through which MAIs block axonal repair remain largely unknown. Here, we report that the kinase GSK3 beta is directly phosphorylated and inactivated by MAIs, consequently regulating protein-protein interactions that are critical for myelin-dependent inhibition. Inhibition of GSK3 beta mimics the neurite outgrowth inhibitory effect of myelin. The inhibitory effects of GSK3 beta inhibitors and myelin are not additive indicating that GSK3 beta is a major effector of MAIs. Consistent with this, overexpression of GSK3 beta attenuates myelin inhibition. MAI-dependent phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK3 beta regulate phosphorylation of CRMP4, a cytosolic regulator of myelin inhibition, and its ability to complex with RhoA. Introduction of a CRMP4 antagonist attenuates the neurite outgrowth inhibitory properties of GSK3 beta inhibitors. We describe the first example of GSK3 beta inactivation in response to inhibitory ligands and link the neurite outgrowth inhibitory effects of GSK3 beta inhibition directly to CRMP4. These findings raise the possibility that GSK3 beta inhibition will not effectively promote long-distance CNS regeneration following trauma such as spinal cord injury.