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Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy

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Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy. / Klionsky, D.J.; Backues, S.K.; Bartholomew, C.R.; Bridges, D.; Gestwicki, J.E.; Han, T.; Jin, M.; Kim, J.K.; Lin, J.D.; Lynch-Day, M.A.; Mao, K.; Nair, U.; Parzych, K.R.; Umekawa, M.; Wang, K.; Yen, W.-L.; Zhao, M.; Olsen, L.J.; Abdalla, F.C.; Marcondes, M.; Silva-Zacarin, E.C.M.; Abeliovich, H.; Abraham, R.T.; Acevedo-Arozena, A.; Adeli, K.; Agholme, L.; Agnello, M.; Chiarelli, R.; Roccheri, M.C.; Agostinis, P.; Aguirre-Ghiso, J.A.; Ahn, H.J.; Ait-Mohamed, O.; Ait-Si-Ali, S.; Akematsu, T.; Akira, S.; Saitoh, T.; Al-Younes, H.M.; Al-Zeer, M.A.; Meyer, T.F.; Albert, M.L.; Albin, R.L.; Dowling, J.J.; Alegre-Abarrategui, J.; Wade-Martins, R.; Aleo, M.F.; Fanzani, A.; Rovetta, F.; Alirezaei, M.; Chisari, F.V.; Whitton, J.L.; Almasan, A.; Almonte-Becerril, M.; Kouri Flores, J.B.; Amano, A.; Amaravadi, R.; Amarnath, S.; Fowler, D.H.; Amer, A.O.; Drew, M.E.; Andrieu-Abadie, N.; Poirot, M.; Vindis, C.; Anantharam, V.; Kanthasamy, A.G.; Kanthasamy, A.; Ann, D.K.; Anoopkumar-Dukie, S.; Grant, G.D.; Aoki, H.; Apostolova, N.; Arancia, G.; Condello, M.; Meschini, S.; Aris, J.P.; Asanuma, K.; Tomino, Y.; Asare, N.Y.O.; Ashida, H.; Askanas, V.; Nogalska, A.; Askew, D.S.; Auberger, P.; Bost, F.; Gual, P.; Luciano, F.; Rocchi, S.; Baba, M.; Baehrecke, E.H.; Bahr, B.A.; Bai, X.-Y.; Chen, X.; Bailly, Y.; Baiocchi, R.; Baldini, G.; Balduini, W.; Ballabio, A.; Brunetti-Pierri, N.; Settembre, C.; Bamber, B.A.; Bampton, E.T.W.; Melino, G.; Bánhegyi, G.; Bassham, D.C.; Bast Jr., R.C.; Fan, Z.; Lopez-Berestein, G.; Lu, Z.; Ozpolat, B.; Batoko, H.; Bay, B.-H.; Beau, I.; Esclatine, A.; Béchet, D.M.; Begley, T.J.; Behl, C.; Behrends, C.; Dikic, I.; Bekri, S.; Bellaire, B.; Bendall, L.J.; Benetti, L.; Berliocchi, L.; Bernardi, H.; Sanchez, A.M.J.; Bernassola, F.; Marfe, G.; Palumbo, C.; Besteiro, S.; Bhatia-Kissova, I.; Bi, X.; Biard-Piechaczyk, M.; Espert, L.; Blum, J.S.; Boise, L.H.; Lonial, S.; Sun, S.-Y.; Bonaldo, P.; Sandri, M.; Boone, D.L.; Bornhauser, B.C.; Bourquin, J.-P.; Bortoluci, K.R.; Bossis, I.; Boya, P.; Boyer-Guittaut, M.; Bozhkov, P.V.; Brady, N.R.; Brancolini, C.; Brech, A.; Nezis, I.P.; Rusten, T.E.; Stenmark, H.; Brenman, J.E.; Brennand, A.; Michels, P.A.M.; Bresnick, E.H.; Kang, Y.-A.; Brest, P.; Hofman, P.; Mograbi, B.; Bristol, M.L.; Gewirtz, D.A.; Brookes, P.S.; Johnson, G.V.W.; Brown, E.J.; Brumell, J.H.; Huang, J.; Kim, P.K.; Brunk, U.T.; Kurz, T.; Bulman, D.E.; Bultman, S.J.; Bultynck, G.; Parys, J.B.; Burbulla, L.F.; Krüger, R.; Bursch, W.; Butchar, J.P.; Buzgariu, W.; Galliot, B.; Bydlowski, S.P.; Cadwell, K.; Cahová, M.; Papackova, Z.; Cai, D.; Cai, J.; Cai, Q.; Calabretta, B.; Sotgia, F.; Calvo-Garrido, J.; Escalante, R.; Camougrand, N.; Manon, S.; Priault, M.; Campanella, M.; Campos-Salinas, J.; Gonzalez-Rey, E.; Oliver, F.J.; Candi, E.; Cao, L.; Caplan, A.B.; Carding, S.R.; Cardoso, S.M.; Moreira, P.I.; Carew, J.S.; Nawrocki, S.T.; Carlin, C.R.; Carmignac, V.; Durbeej, M.; Carneiro, L.A.M.; Carra, S.; Kampinga, H.H.; Caruso, R.A.; Casari, G.; Casas, C.; Castino, R.; Isidoro, C.; Cebollero, E.; Reggiori, F.; Cecconi, F.; Ciriolo, M.R.; Piacentini, M.; Celli, J.; Chaachouay, H.; Rodemann, H.P.; Chae, H.-J.; Chai, C.-Y.; Chan, D.C.; Chan, E.Y.; Coombs, G.H.; Chang, R.C.-C.; Che, C.-M.; Lok, C.-N.; Sy, L.-K.; Chen, C.-C.; Lin, W.-W.; Chen, G.-C.; Yang, W.Y.; Chen, G.-Q.; Chen, M.; Wang, J.; Chen, Q.; Chen, S.S.-L.; Ke, P.-Y.; Lin, Y.-L.; Chen, W.; Chen, Y.-G.; Liu, Y.; Yu, L.; Chen, Y.; Guan, J.-L.; Towns, R.; Wiley, J.W.; Chen, Y.-J.; Chen, Z.; Cheng, A.; Cheng, C.H.K.; Cheng, Y.; Wang, H.-G.; Yang, J.-M.; El-Deiry, W.S.; Cheong, H.; Thompson, C.B.; Cheong, J.-H.; Cherry, S.; Chess-Williams, R.; Cheung, Z.H.; Chevet, E.; Chiang, H.-L.; Chiba, T.; Chin, L.-S.; Li, L.; Mao, Z.; Chiou, S.-H.; Cho, C.H.; Cho, D.-H.; Choi, A.M.K.; Haspel, J.A.; Henske, E.P.; Nakahira, K.; Ryter, S.W.; Choi, D.; Choi, K.S.; Choi, M.E.; Münger, K.; Chouaib, S.; Choubey, D.; Choubey, V.; Kaasik, A.; Chu, C.T.; Rabinowich, H.; Chuang, T.-H.; Chueh, S.-H.; Chun, T.; Park, O.K.; Chwae, Y.-J.; Chye, M.-L.; Ciarcia, R.; Florio, S.; Granato, G.E.; Clague, M.J.; Clark, R.S.B.; Clarke, P.G.H.; Puyal, J.; Clarke, R.; Saha, T.; Codogno, P.; Coller, H.A.; Colombo, M.I.; Comincini, S.; Condorelli, F.; Cookson, M.R.; Coppens, I.; Corbalan, R.; Cossart, P.; Costelli, P.; Costes, S.; Coto-Montes, A.; Couve, E.; Coxon, F.P.; Helfrich, M.H.; Hocking, L.J.; Cregg, J.M.; Crespo, J.L.; Cronjé, M.J.; Cuervo, A.M.; Kaushik, S.; Koga, H.; Czaja, M.J.; Cullen, J.J.; D'Amelio, M.; Darfeuille-Michaud, A.; Davids, L.M.; Davies, F.E.; De Felici, M.; De Groot, J.F.; Fueyo, J.; Gomez-Manzano, C.; Jiang, H.; De Haan, C.A.M.; Monastyrska, I.; De Martino, L.; Fiorito, F.; Iovane, V.; Pagnini, U.; De Milito, A.; Joseph, B.; Panaretakis, T.; De Tata, V.; Debnath, J.; Degterev, A.; Dehay, B.; Delbridge, L.M.D.; Demarchi, F.; Schneider, C.; Deng, Y.Z.; Naqvi, N.I.; Dengjel, J.; Dent, P.; Denton, D.; Kumar, S.; Deretic, V.; Desai, S.D.; Devenish, R.J.; Mijaljica, D.; Prescott, M.; Ramm, G.; Di Gioacchino, M.; Di Paolo, G.; Duff, K.; Yu, W.H.; Przedborski, S.; Yamamoto, A.; Di Pietro, C.; Marazziti, D.; Matteoni, R.; Tocchini-Valentini, G.; Díaz-Araya, G.; Díaz-Laviada, I.; Diaz-Meco, M.T.; Fotedar, R.; Hansen, M.; Moscat, J.; Reed, J.C.; Salvesen, G.; Yang, Z.; Diaz-Nido, J.; Izquierdo, M.; Dinesh-Kumar, S.P.; Ding, W.-X.; Distelhorst, C.W.; Subauste, C.S.; Wang, X.; Zhu, X.; Oleinick, N.L.; Diwan, A.; Djavaheri-Mergny, M.; Dokudovskaya, S.; Dong, Z.; Willbold, D.; Dorsey, F.C.; Dosenko, V.; Doxsey, S.; Dreux, M.; Duan, Q.; Duchosal, M.A.; Dugail, I.; Kroemer, G.; Maiuri, M.C.; Duszenko, M.; Edelstein, C.L.; Edinger, A.L.; Egea, G.; Eichinger, L.; Noegel, A.A.; Eissa, N.T.; Lin, W.-C.; Ekmekcioglu, S.; Elazar, Z.; Elgendy, M.; Minucci, S.; Ellerby, L.M.; Er Eng, K.; McInerney, G.M.; Engelbrecht, A.-M.; Loos, B.; Engelender, S.; Erenpreisa, J.; Eskelinen, E.-L.; Espina, V.; Fan, H.; Fan, J.; Fan, Q.-W.; Ilkhanizadeh, S.; Weiss, W.A.; Fang, S.; Monteiro, M.J.; Fang, Y.; Fanto, M.; Farkas, T.; Jäättelä, M.; Farré, J.-C.; Nazarko, T.Y.; Faure, M.; Fechheimer, M.; Furukawa, R.H.; Feng, C.G.; Feng, J.; Feng, Q.; Feng, Y.; Fésüs, L.; Feuer, R.; Figueiredo-Pereira, M.E.; Fimia, G.M.; Fingar, D.C.; Finkbeiner, S.; Finkel, T.; Finley, K.D.; Gottlieb, R.A.; Fisher, E.A.; Fisher, P.B.; Flajolet, M.; Tian, Y.; Florez-McClure, M.L.; Fon, E.A.; Fornai, F.; Fortunato, F.; Fox, H.S.; Franco, R.; Frankel, L.B.; Lund, A.H.; Fransen, M.; Fuentes, J.M.; González-Polo, R.A.; Fujii, J.; Fujisaki, K.; Umemiya-Shirafuji, R.; Fujita, E.; Fukuda, M.; Gaestel, M.; Menon, M.B.; Gailly, P.; Gajewska, M.; Motyl, T.; Galy, V.; Ganesh, S.; Ganetzky, B.; Ganley, I.G.; Gao, F.-B.; Gao, G.F.; Gao, J.; Garcia, L.; Lavandero, S.; Garcia-Manero, G.; Garcia-Marcos, M.; Garmyn, M.; Gartel, A.L.; Gatti, E.; Golstein, P.; Pierre, P.; Gautel, M.; Gawriluk, T.R.; Hale, A.N.; Ledbetter, D.J.; Rucker III, E.B.; Gegg, M.E.; Schapira, A.H.V.; Geng, J.; Harper, J.W.; Germain, M.; Slack, R.S.; Lieberman, A.; Lukacs, N.W.; Ghavami, S.; Halayko, A.J.; Kirshenbaum, L.A.; Yeganeh, B.; Ghosh, P.; Lee, J.; Giammarioli, A.M.; Malorni, W.; Giatromanolaki, A.N.; Sivridis, E.; Gibson, S.B.; Gilkerson, R.W.; Sulzer, D.; Ginger, M.L.; Ginsberg, H.N.; Tabas, I.; Golab, J.; Goligorsky, M.S.; Goncu, E.; Gongora, C.; Le Cam, L.; Pattingre, S.; Gonzalez, C.D.; Vaccaro, M.I.; Gonzalez, R.; González-Estévez, C.; Gorbunov, N.V.; Gorski, S.; Goruppi, S.; Gozuacik, D.; Green, K.N.; Gregorc, A.; Gros, F.; Muller, S.; Grose, C.; Grunt, T.W.; Guan, K.-L.; Guichard, S.M.; Gukovskaya, A.S.; Gukovsky, I.; Gunst, J.; Van Den Berghe, G.; Vanhorebeek, I.; Gustafsson, A.B.; Halonen, S.K.; Hamasaki, M.; Noda, T.; Yoshimori, T.; Han, F.; Hancock, M.K.; Harada, H.; Harada, M.; Hardt, S.E.; Harris, A.L.; Harris, J.; Harris, S.D.; Hashimoto, M.; Hayashi, S.-I.; Hazelhurst, L.A.; He, C.; Levine, B.; Terada, A.S.; He, Y.-W.; Rathmell, J.C.; Taylor, G.A.; Hébert, M.-J.; Heidenreich, K.A.; Helgason, G.V.; Holyoake, T.L.; Herman, B.; Reiter, R.J.; Herman, P.K.; Hetz, C.; Hilfiker, S.; Navarro, M.; Hill, J.A.; Nemchenko, A.; Yoshimoto, K.; Hofmann, T.G.; Höhfeld, J.; Hong, M.-H.; Hood, D.A.; Hotamisligil, G.S.; Houwerzijl, E.J.; Høyer-Hansen, M.; Hu, B.; Hu, C.-A.A.; Hu, H.-M.; Hua, Y.; Huang, C.; Liu, B.; Huang, S.; Sinicrope, F.A.; Huang, W.-P.; Huber, T.B.; Huh, W.-K.; Hung, T.-H.; Hupp, T.R.; Hur, G.M.; Hurley, J.B.; Hussain, S.N.A.; Hussey, P.J.; Hwang, J.J.; Hwang, S.; Ichihara, A.; Inoki, K.; Into, T.; Iovanna, J.L.; Ip, N.Y.; Isaka, Y.; Ishida, H.; Isobe, K.-I.; Iwasaki, A.; Izumi, Y.; Jaakkola, P.M.; Jackson, G.R.; Jackson, W.T.; Janji, B.; Jendrach, M.; Jeon, J.-H.; Jeung, E.-B.; Ma, Y.; Wang, D.; Jiang, J.X.; Jiang, M.; Jiang, Q.; Jiang, X.; Overholtzer, M.; Jiménez, A.; Revuelta, J.L.; Jin, S.; Joe, C.O.; Lee, G.M.; Johansen, T.; Lamark, T.; Johnson, D.E.; Jones, N.L.; Joseph, S.K.; Joubert, A.M.; Juhász, G.; Kovács, A.L.; László, L.; Lõw, P.; 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Korolchuk, V.I.; Kotake, Y.; Koukourakis, M.I.; Kraft, C.; Krainc, D.; McLean, P.J.; Tannous, B.A.; Krämer, H.; Kretz-Remy, C.; Krichevsky, A.M.; Krut, O.; Ktistakis, N.T.; Kuan, C.-Y.; Kucharczyk, R.; Sirko, A.; Zoladek, T.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, R.; Kundu, M.; Kung, H.-J.; Kwon, H.J.; La Spada, A.R.; Spector, S.A.; Lafont, F.; Landry, J.; Lavoie, J.N.; Lane, J.D.; Lapaquette, P.; Laporte, J.F.; Layfield, R.; Lazo, P.A.; Mollinedo, F.; Le, W.; Li, S.; Lee, A.J.X.; Swanton, C.; Lee, B.-W.; Lee, J.-H.; Levy, E.; Nixon, R.A.; Yang, D.-S.; Lee, M.; Lee, M.-S.; Lee, S.H.; Leeuwenburgh, C.; Legembre, P.; Legouis, R.; Lehmann, M.; Lei, H.-Y.; Lei, Q.-Y.; Leib, D.A.; Leiro, J.; Lemasters, J.J.; Lemoine, A.; Lesniak, M.S.; Lev, D.; McConkey, D.J.; Levenson, V.V.; Li, F.; Vierstra, R.D.; Li, J.-L.; Li, W.; Li, X.-J.; Li, Y.-B.; Yin, J.-J.; Li, Y.-P.; Liang, C.; Ou, J.-H.J.; Liang, Q.; Liao, Y.-F.; Liberski, P.P.; Sikorska, B.; Lim, H.J.; Lim, K.-L.; Pervaiz, S.; Soong, T.W.; Lim, K.; Lin, C.-F.; Lin, F.-C.; 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A.

In: Autophagy, Vol. 8, No. 4, 2012, p. 445-544.

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Klionsky, DJ, Backues, SK, Bartholomew, CR, Bridges, D, Gestwicki, JE, Han, T, Jin, M, Kim, JK, Lin, JD, Lynch-Day, MA, Mao, K, Nair, U, Parzych, KR, Umekawa, M, Wang, K, Yen, W-L, Zhao, M, Olsen, LJ, Abdalla, FC, Marcondes, M, Silva-Zacarin, ECM, Abeliovich, H, Abraham, RT, Acevedo-Arozena, A, Adeli, K, Agholme, L, Agnello, M, Chiarelli, R, Roccheri, MC, Agostinis, P, Aguirre-Ghiso, JA, Ahn, HJ, Ait-Mohamed, O, Ait-Si-Ali, S, Akematsu, T, Akira, S, Saitoh, T, Al-Younes, HM, Al-Zeer, MA, Meyer, TF, Albert, ML, Albin, RL, Dowling, JJ, Alegre-Abarrategui, J, Wade-Martins, R, Aleo, MF, Fanzani, A, Rovetta, F, Alirezaei, M, Chisari, FV, Whitton, JL, Almasan, A, Almonte-Becerril, M, Kouri Flores, JB, Amano, A, Amaravadi, R, Amarnath, S, Fowler, DH, Amer, AO, Drew, ME, Andrieu-Abadie, N, Poirot, M, Vindis, C, Anantharam, V, Kanthasamy, AG, Kanthasamy, A, Ann, DK, Anoopkumar-Dukie, S, Grant, GD, Aoki, H, Apostolova, N, Arancia, G, Condello, M, Meschini, S, Aris, JP, Asanuma, K, Tomino, Y, Asare, NYO, Ashida, H, Askanas, V, Nogalska, A, Askew, DS, Auberger, P, Bost, F, Gual, P, Luciano, F, Rocchi, S, Baba, M, Baehrecke, EH, Bahr, BA, Bai, X-Y, Chen, X, Bailly, Y, Baiocchi, R, Baldini, G, Balduini, W, Ballabio, A, Brunetti-Pierri, N, Settembre, C, Bamber, BA, Bampton, ETW, Melino, G, Bánhegyi, G, Bassham, DC, Bast Jr., RC, Fan, Z, Lopez-Berestein, G, Lu, Z, Ozpolat, B, Batoko, H, Bay, B-H, Beau, I, Esclatine, A, Béchet, DM, Begley, TJ, Behl, C, Behrends, C, Dikic, I, Bekri, S, Bellaire, B, Bendall, LJ, Benetti, L, Berliocchi, L, Bernardi, H, Sanchez, AMJ, Bernassola, F, Marfe, G, Palumbo, C, Besteiro, S, Bhatia-Kissova, I, Bi, X, Biard-Piechaczyk, M, Espert, L, Blum, JS, Boise, LH, Lonial, S, Sun, S-Y, Bonaldo, P, Sandri, M, Boone, DL, Bornhauser, BC, Bourquin, J-P, Bortoluci, KR, Bossis, I, Boya, P, Boyer-Guittaut, M, Bozhkov, PV, Brady, NR, Brancolini, C, Brech, A, Nezis, IP, Rusten, TE, Stenmark, H, Brenman, JE, Brennand, A, Michels, PAM, Bresnick, EH, Kang, Y-A, Brest, P, Hofman, P, Mograbi, B, Bristol, ML, Gewirtz, DA, Brookes, PS, Johnson, GVW, Brown, EJ, Brumell, JH, Huang, J, Kim, PK, Brunk, UT, Kurz, T, Bulman, DE, Bultman, SJ, Bultynck, G, Parys, JB, Burbulla, LF, Krüger, R, Bursch, W, Butchar, JP, Buzgariu, W, Galliot, B, Bydlowski, SP, Cadwell, K, Cahová, M, Papackova, Z, Cai, D, Cai, J, Cai, Q, Calabretta, B, Sotgia, F, Calvo-Garrido, J, Escalante, R, Camougrand, N, Manon, S, Priault, M, Campanella, M, Campos-Salinas, J, Gonzalez-Rey, E, Oliver, FJ, Candi, E, Cao, L, Caplan, AB, Carding, SR, Cardoso, SM, Moreira, PI, Carew, JS, Nawrocki, ST, Carlin, CR, Carmignac, V, Durbeej, M, Carneiro, LAM, Carra, S, Kampinga, HH, Caruso, RA, Casari, G, Casas, C, Castino, R, Isidoro, C, Cebollero, E, Reggiori, F, Cecconi, F, Ciriolo, MR, Piacentini, M, Celli, J, Chaachouay, H, Rodemann, HP, Chae, H-J, Chai, C-Y, Chan, DC, Chan, EY, Coombs, GH, Chang, RC-C, Che, C-M, Lok, C-N, Sy, L-K, Chen, C-C, Lin, W-W, Chen, G-C, Yang, WY, Chen, G-Q, Chen, M, Wang, J, Chen, Q, Chen, SS-L, Ke, P-Y, Lin, Y-L, Chen, W, Chen, Y-G, Liu, Y, Yu, L, Chen, Y, Guan, J-L, Towns, R, Wiley, JW, Chen, Y-J, Chen, Z, Cheng, A, Cheng, CHK, Cheng, Y, Wang, H-G, Yang, J-M, El-Deiry, WS, Cheong, H, Thompson, CB, Cheong, J-H, Cherry, S, Chess-Williams, R, Cheung, ZH, Chevet, E, Chiang, H-L, Chiba, T, Chin, L-S, Li, L, Mao, Z, Chiou, S-H, Cho, CH, Cho, D-H, Choi, AMK, Haspel, JA, Henske, EP, Nakahira, K, Ryter, SW, Choi, D, Choi, KS, Choi, ME, Münger, K, Chouaib, S, Choubey, D, Choubey, V, Kaasik, A, Chu, CT, Rabinowich, H, Chuang, T-H, Chueh, S-H, Chun, T, Park, OK, Chwae, Y-J, Chye, M-L, Ciarcia, R, Florio, S, Granato, GE, Clague, MJ, Clark, RSB, Clarke, PGH, Puyal, J, Clarke, R, Saha, T, Codogno, P, Coller, HA, Colombo, MI, Comincini, S, Condorelli, F, Cookson, MR, Coppens, I, Corbalan, R, Cossart, P, Costelli, P, Costes, S, Coto-Montes, A, Couve, E, Coxon, FP, Helfrich, MH, Hocking, LJ, Cregg, JM, Crespo, JL, Cronjé, MJ, Cuervo, AM, Kaushik, S, Koga, H, Czaja, MJ, Cullen, JJ, D'Amelio, M, Darfeuille-Michaud, A, Davids, LM, Davies, FE, De Felici, M, De Groot, JF, Fueyo, J, Gomez-Manzano, C, Jiang, H, De Haan, CAM, Monastyrska, I, De Martino, L, Fiorito, F, Iovane, V, Pagnini, U, De Milito, A, Joseph, B, Panaretakis, T, De Tata, V, Debnath, J, Degterev, A, Dehay, B, Delbridge, LMD, Demarchi, F, Schneider, C, Deng, YZ, Naqvi, NI, Dengjel, J, Dent, P, Denton, D, Kumar, S, Deretic, V, Desai, SD, Devenish, RJ, Mijaljica, D, Prescott, M, Ramm, G, Di Gioacchino, M, Di Paolo, G, Duff, K, Yu, WH, Przedborski, S, Yamamoto, A, Di Pietro, C, Marazziti, D, Matteoni, R, Tocchini-Valentini, G, Díaz-Araya, G, Díaz-Laviada, I, Diaz-Meco, MT, Fotedar, R, Hansen, M, Moscat, J, Reed, JC, Salvesen, G, Yang, Z, Diaz-Nido, J, Izquierdo, M, Dinesh-Kumar, SP, Ding, W-X, Distelhorst, CW, Subauste, CS, Wang, X, Zhu, X, Oleinick, NL, Diwan, A, Djavaheri-Mergny, M, Dokudovskaya, S, Dong, Z, Willbold, D, Dorsey, FC, Dosenko, V, Doxsey, S, Dreux, M, Duan, Q, Duchosal, MA, Dugail, I, Kroemer, G, Maiuri, MC, Duszenko, M, Edelstein, CL, Edinger, AL, Egea, G, Eichinger, L, Noegel, AA, Eissa, NT, Lin, W-C, Ekmekcioglu, S, Elazar, Z, Elgendy, M, Minucci, S, Ellerby, LM, Er Eng, K, McInerney, GM, Engelbrecht, A-M, Loos, B, Engelender, S, Erenpreisa, J, Eskelinen, E-L, Espina, V, Fan, H, Fan, J, Fan, Q-W, Ilkhanizadeh, S, Weiss, WA, Fang, S, Monteiro, MJ, Fang, Y, Fanto, M, Farkas, T, Jäättelä, M, Farré, J-C, Nazarko, TY, Faure, M, Fechheimer, M, Furukawa, RH, Feng, CG, Feng, J, Feng, Q, Feng, Y, Fésüs, L, Feuer, R, Figueiredo-Pereira, ME, Fimia, GM, Fingar, DC, Finkbeiner, S, Finkel, T, Finley, KD, Gottlieb, RA, Fisher, EA, Fisher, PB, Flajolet, M, Tian, Y, Florez-McClure, ML, Fon, EA, Fornai, F, Fortunato, F, Fox, HS, Franco, R, Frankel, LB, Lund, AH, Fransen, M, Fuentes, JM, González-Polo, RA, Fujii, J, Fujisaki, K, Umemiya-Shirafuji, R, Fujita, E, Fukuda, M, Gaestel, M, Menon, MB, Gailly, P, Gajewska, M, Motyl, T, Galy, V, Ganesh, S, Ganetzky, B, Ganley, IG, Gao, F-B, Gao, GF, Gao, J, Garcia, L, Lavandero, S, Garcia-Manero, G, Garcia-Marcos, M, Garmyn, M, Gartel, AL, Gatti, E, Golstein, P, Pierre, P, Gautel, M, Gawriluk, TR, Hale, AN, Ledbetter, DJ, Rucker III, EB, Gegg, ME, Schapira, AHV, Geng, J, Harper, JW, Germain, M, Slack, RS, Lieberman, A, Lukacs, NW, Ghavami, S, Halayko, AJ, Kirshenbaum, LA, Yeganeh, B, Ghosh, P, Lee, J, Giammarioli, AM, Malorni, W, Giatromanolaki, AN, Sivridis, E, Gibson, SB, Gilkerson, RW, Sulzer, D, Ginger, ML, Ginsberg, HN, Tabas, I, Golab, J, Goligorsky, MS, Goncu, E, Gongora, C, Le Cam, L, Pattingre, S, Gonzalez, CD, Vaccaro, MI, Gonzalez, R, González-Estévez, C, Gorbunov, NV, Gorski, S, Goruppi, S, Gozuacik, D, Green, KN, Gregorc, A, Gros, F, Muller, S, Grose, C, Grunt, TW, Guan, K-L, Guichard, SM, Gukovskaya, AS, Gukovsky, I, Gunst, J, Van Den Berghe, G, Vanhorebeek, I, Gustafsson, AB, Halonen, SK, Hamasaki, M, Noda, T, Yoshimori, T, Han, F, Hancock, MK, Harada, H, Harada, M, Hardt, SE, Harris, AL, Harris, J, Harris, SD, Hashimoto, M, Hayashi, S-I, Hazelhurst, LA, He, C, Levine, B, Terada, AS, He, Y-W, Rathmell, JC, Taylor, GA, Hébert, M-J, Heidenreich, KA, Helgason, GV, Holyoake, TL, Herman, B, Reiter, RJ, Herman, PK, Hetz, C, Hilfiker, S, Navarro, M, Hill, JA, Nemchenko, A, Yoshimoto, K, Hofmann, TG, Höhfeld, J, Hong, M-H, Hood, DA, Hotamisligil, GS, Houwerzijl, EJ, Høyer-Hansen, M, Hu, B, Hu, C-AA, Hu, H-M, Hua, Y, Huang, C, Liu, B, Huang, S, Sinicrope, FA, Huang, W-P, Huber, TB, Huh, W-K, Hung, T-H, Hupp, TR, Hur, GM, Hurley, JB, Hussain, SNA, Hussey, PJ, Hwang, JJ, Hwang, S, Ichihara, A, Inoki, K, Into, T, Iovanna, JL, Ip, NY, Isaka, Y, Ishida, H, Isobe, K-I, Iwasaki, A, Izumi, Y, Jaakkola, PM, Jackson, GR, Jackson, WT, Janji, B, Jendrach, M, Jeon, J-H, Jeung, E-B, Ma, Y, Wang, D, Jiang, JX, Jiang, M, Jiang, Q, Jiang, X, Overholtzer, M, Jiménez, A, Revuelta, JL, Jin, S, Joe, CO, Lee, GM, Johansen, T, Lamark, T, Johnson, DE, Jones, NL, Joseph, SK, Joubert, AM, Juhász, G, Kovács, AL, László, L, Lõw, P, Sass, M, Juillerat-Jeanneret, L, Jung, CH, Jung, Y-K, Kaarniranta, K, Kabuta, T, Wada, K, Kadowaki, M, Kagedal, K, Kamada, Y, Kaminskyy, VO, Zhivotovsky, B, Kanamori, H, Takemura, G, Kang, C, Kang, KB, Il Kang, K, Kang, R, Lotze, MT, Tang, D, Kanki, T, Kanneganti, T-D, Kanno, H, Karantza, V, Kaushal, GP, Kawazoe, Y, Kehrl, JH, Kelekar, A, Kerkhoff, C, Kessel, DH, Khalil, H, Kiel, JAKW, Van Der Klei, IJ, Kiger, AA, Kihara, A, Obara, K, Kim, DR, Kim, D-H, Yoon, S-Y, Kim, E-K, Yu, S-W, Kim, H-R, Kim, J-S, Kim, JH, Kim, JC, Meisler, MH, McQuibban, GA, Kim, SW, Kim, Y-S, Koh, YH, Kim, Y, Marten, MR, Kimchi, A, Kimmelman, AC, King, JS, Ryan, KM, Kinsella, TJ, Kirkin, V, Kitamoto, K, Kitazato, K, Klein, L, Klimecki, WT, Klucken, J, Knecht, E, Ko, BCB, Koch, JC, Lingor, P, Tönges, L, Koh, J-Y, Koike, M, Uchiyama, Y, Komatsu, M, Tanaka, K, Kominami, E, Ueno, T, Kong, HJ, Kong, W-J, Korolchuk, VI, Kotake, Y, Koukourakis, MI, Kraft, C, Krainc, D, McLean, PJ, Tannous, BA, Krämer, H, Kretz-Remy, C, Krichevsky, AM, Krut, O, Ktistakis, NT, Kuan, C-Y, Kucharczyk, R, Sirko, A, Zoladek, T, Kumar, A, Kumar, R, Kundu, M, Kung, H-J, Kwon, HJ, La Spada, AR, Spector, SA, Lafont, F, Landry, J, Lavoie, JN, Lane, JD, Lapaquette, P, Laporte, JF, Layfield, R, Lazo, PA, Mollinedo, F, Le, W, Li, S, Lee, AJX, Swanton, C, Lee, B-W, Lee, J-H, Levy, E, Nixon, RA, Yang, D-S, Lee, M, Lee, M-S, Lee, SH, Leeuwenburgh, C, Legembre, P, Legouis, R, Lehmann, M, Lei, H-Y, Lei, Q-Y, Leib, DA, Leiro, J, Lemasters, JJ, Lemoine, A, Lesniak, MS, Lev, D, McConkey, DJ, Levenson, VV, Li, F, Vierstra, RD, Li, J-L, Li, W, Li, X-J, Li, Y-B, Yin, J-J, Li, Y-P, Liang, C, Ou, J-HJ, Liang, Q, Liao, Y-F, Liberski, PP, Sikorska, B, Lim, HJ, Lim, K-L, Pervaiz, S, Soong, TW, Lim, K, Lin, C-F, Lin, F-C, Lin, J, Lin, K, Linden, R, Lippincott-Schwartz, J, Lisanti, MP, Liton, PB, Liu, C-F, Liu, K, Liu, L, Wang, F, Liu, QA, Liu, W, Phang, JM, Zabirnyk, O, Liu, Y-C, Lockshin, RA, Meléndez, 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APA

Klionsky, D. J., Backues, S. K., Bartholomew, C. R., Bridges, D., Gestwicki, J. E., Han, T., Jin, M., Kim, J. K., Lin, J. D., Lynch-Day, M. A., Mao, K., Nair, U., Parzych, K. R., Umekawa, M., Wang, K., Yen, W-L., Zhao, M., Olsen, L. J., Abdalla, F. C., Marcondes, M., Silva-Zacarin, E. C. M., Abeliovich, H., Abraham, R. T., Acevedo-Arozena, A., Adeli, K., Agholme, L., Agnello, M., Chiarelli, R., Roccheri, M. C., Agostinis, P., Aguirre-Ghiso, J. A., Ahn, H. J., Ait-Mohamed, O., Ait-Si-Ali, S., Akematsu, T., Akira, S., Saitoh, T., Al-Younes, H. M., Al-Zeer, M. A., Meyer, T. F., Albert, M. L., Albin, R. L., Dowling, J. J., Alegre-Abarrategui, J., Wade-Martins, R., Aleo, M. F., Fanzani, A., Rovetta, F., Alirezaei, M., Chisari, F. V., Whitton, J. L., Almasan, A., Almonte-Becerril, M., Kouri Flores, J. B., Amano, A., Amaravadi, R., Amarnath, S., Fowler, D. H., Amer, A. O., Drew, M. E., Andrieu-Abadie, N., Poirot, M., Vindis, C., Anantharam, V., Kanthasamy, A. G., Kanthasamy, A., Ann, D. 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Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy. Autophagy, 8(4), 445-544doi: 10.4161/auto.19496

Vancouver

Klionsky DJ, Backues SK, Bartholomew CR, Bridges D, Gestwicki JE, Han T et al. Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy. Autophagy. 2012;8(4):445-544.

Author

Klionsky, D.J.; Backues, S.K.; Bartholomew, C.R.; Bridges, D.; Gestwicki, J.E.; Han, T.; Jin, M.; Kim, J.K.; Lin, J.D.; Lynch-Day, M.A.; Mao, K.; Nair, U.; Parzych, K.R.; Umekawa, M.; Wang, K.; Yen, W.-L.; Zhao, M.; Olsen, L.J.; Abdalla, F.C.; Marcondes, M.; Silva-Zacarin, E.C.M.; Abeliovich, H.; Abraham, R.T.; Acevedo-Arozena, A.; Adeli, K.; Agholme, L.; Agnello, M.; Chiarelli, R.; Roccheri, M.C.; Agostinis, P.; Aguirre-Ghiso, J.A.; Ahn, H.J.; Ait-Mohamed, O.; Ait-Si-Ali, S.; Akematsu, T.; Akira, S.; Saitoh, T.; Al-Younes, H.M.; Al-Zeer, M.A.; Meyer, T.F.; Albert, M.L.; Albin, R.L.; Dowling, J.J.; Alegre-Abarrategui, J.; Wade-Martins, R.; Aleo, M.F.; Fanzani, A.; Rovetta, F.; Alirezaei, M.; Chisari, F.V.; Whitton, J.L.; Almasan, A.; Almonte-Becerril, M.; Kouri Flores, J.B.; Amano, A.; Amaravadi, R.; Amarnath, S.; Fowler, D.H.; Amer, A.O.; Drew, M.E.; Andrieu-Abadie, N.; Poirot, M.; Vindis, C.; Anantharam, V.; Kanthasamy, A.G.; Kanthasamy, A.; Ann, D.K.; Anoopkumar-Dukie, S.; Grant, G.D.; Aoki, H.; Apostolova, N.; Arancia, G.; Condello, M.; Meschini, S.; Aris, J.P.; Asanuma, K.; Tomino, Y.; Asare, N.Y.O.; Ashida, H.; Askanas, V.; Nogalska, A.; Askew, D.S.; Auberger, P.; Bost, F.; Gual, P.; Luciano, F.; Rocchi, S.; Baba, M.; Baehrecke, E.H.; Bahr, B.A.; Bai, X.-Y.; Chen, X.; Bailly, Y.; Baiocchi, R.; Baldini, G.; Balduini, W.; Ballabio, A.; Brunetti-Pierri, N.; Settembre, C.; Bamber, B.A.; Bampton, E.T.W.; Melino, G.; Bánhegyi, G.; Bassham, D.C.; Bast Jr., R.C.; Fan, Z.; Lopez-Berestein, G.; Lu, Z.; Ozpolat, B.; Batoko, H.; Bay, B.-H.; Beau, I.; Esclatine, A.; Béchet, D.M.; Begley, T.J.; Behl, C.; Behrends, C.; Dikic, I.; Bekri, S.; Bellaire, B.; Bendall, L.J.; Benetti, L.; Berliocchi, L.; Bernardi, H.; Sanchez, A.M.J.; Bernassola, F.; Marfe, G.; Palumbo, C.; Besteiro, S.; Bhatia-Kissova, I.; Bi, X.; Biard-Piechaczyk, M.; Espert, L.; Blum, J.S.; Boise, L.H.; Lonial, S.; Sun, S.-Y.; Bonaldo, P.; Sandri, M.; Boone, D.L.; Bornhauser, B.C.; Bourquin, J.-P.; Bortoluci, K.R.; Bossis, I.; Boya, P.; Boyer-Guittaut, M.; Bozhkov, P.V.; Brady, N.R.; Brancolini, C.; Brech, A.; Nezis, I.P.; Rusten, T.E.; Stenmark, H.; Brenman, J.E.; Brennand, A.; Michels, P.A.M.; Bresnick, E.H.; Kang, Y.-A.; Brest, P.; Hofman, P.; Mograbi, B.; Bristol, M.L.; Gewirtz, D.A.; Brookes, P.S.; Johnson, G.V.W.; Brown, E.J.; Brumell, J.H.; Huang, J.; Kim, P.K.; Brunk, U.T.; Kurz, T.; Bulman, D.E.; Bultman, S.J.; Bultynck, G.; Parys, J.B.; Burbulla, L.F.; Krüger, R.; Bursch, W.; Butchar, J.P.; Buzgariu, W.; Galliot, B.; Bydlowski, S.P.; Cadwell, K.; Cahová, M.; Papackova, Z.; Cai, D.; Cai, J.; Cai, Q.; Calabretta, B.; Sotgia, F.; Calvo-Garrido, J.; Escalante, R.; Camougrand, N.; Manon, S.; Priault, M.; Campanella, M.; Campos-Salinas, J.; Gonzalez-Rey, E.; Oliver, F.J.; Candi, E.; Cao, L.; Caplan, A.B.; Carding, S.R.; Cardoso, S.M.; Moreira, P.I.; Carew, J.S.; Nawrocki, S.T.; Carlin, C.R.; Carmignac, V.; Durbeej, M.; Carneiro, L.A.M.; Carra, S.; Kampinga, H.H.; Caruso, R.A.; Casari, G.; Casas, C.; Castino, R.; Isidoro, C.; Cebollero, E.; Reggiori, F.; Cecconi, F.; Ciriolo, M.R.; Piacentini, M.; Celli, J.; Chaachouay, H.; Rodemann, H.P.; Chae, H.-J.; Chai, C.-Y.; Chan, D.C.; Chan, E.Y.; Coombs, G.H.; Chang, R.C.-C.; Che, C.-M.; Lok, C.-N.; Sy, L.-K.; Chen, C.-C.; Lin, W.-W.; Chen, G.-C.; Yang, W.Y.; Chen, G.-Q.; Chen, M.; Wang, J.; Chen, Q.; Chen, S.S.-L.; Ke, P.-Y.; Lin, Y.-L.; Chen, W.; Chen, Y.-G.; Liu, Y.; Yu, L.; Chen, Y.; Guan, J.-L.; Towns, R.; Wiley, J.W.; Chen, Y.-J.; Chen, Z.; Cheng, A.; Cheng, C.H.K.; Cheng, Y.; Wang, H.-G.; Yang, J.-M.; El-Deiry, W.S.; Cheong, H.; Thompson, C.B.; Cheong, J.-H.; Cherry, S.; Chess-Williams, R.; Cheung, Z.H.; Chevet, E.; Chiang, H.-L.; Chiba, T.; Chin, L.-S.; Li, L.; Mao, Z.; Chiou, S.-H.; Cho, C.H.; Cho, D.-H.; Choi, A.M.K.; Haspel, J.A.; Henske, E.P.; Nakahira, K.; Ryter, S.W.; Choi, D.; Choi, K.S.; Choi, M.E.; Münger, K.; Chouaib, S.; Choubey, D.; Choubey, V.; Kaasik, A.; Chu, C.T.; Rabinowich, H.; Chuang, T.-H.; Chueh, S.-H.; Chun, T.; Park, O.K.; Chwae, Y.-J.; Chye, M.-L.; Ciarcia, R.; Florio, S.; Granato, G.E.; Clague, M.J.; Clark, R.S.B.; Clarke, P.G.H.; Puyal, J.; Clarke, R.; Saha, T.; Codogno, P.; Coller, H.A.; Colombo, M.I.; Comincini, S.; Condorelli, F.; Cookson, M.R.; Coppens, I.; Corbalan, R.; Cossart, P.; Costelli, P.; Costes, S.; Coto-Montes, A.; Couve, E.; Coxon, F.P.; Helfrich, M.H.; Hocking, L.J.; Cregg, J.M.; Crespo, J.L.; Cronjé, M.J.; Cuervo, A.M.; Kaushik, S.; Koga, H.; Czaja, M.J.; Cullen, J.J.; D'Amelio, M.; Darfeuille-Michaud, A.; Davids, L.M.; Davies, F.E.; De Felici, M.; De Groot, J.F.; Fueyo, J.; Gomez-Manzano, C.; Jiang, H.; De Haan, C.A.M.; Monastyrska, I.; De Martino, L.; Fiorito, F.; Iovane, V.; Pagnini, U.; De Milito, A.; Joseph, B.; Panaretakis, T.; De Tata, V.; Debnath, J.; Degterev, A.; Dehay, B.; Delbridge, L.M.D.; Demarchi, F.; Schneider, C.; Deng, Y.Z.; Naqvi, N.I.; Dengjel, J.; Dent, P.; Denton, D.; Kumar, S.; Deretic, V.; Desai, S.D.; Devenish, R.J.; Mijaljica, D.; Prescott, M.; Ramm, G.; Di Gioacchino, M.; Di Paolo, G.; Duff, K.; Yu, W.H.; Przedborski, S.; Yamamoto, A.; Di Pietro, C.; Marazziti, D.; Matteoni, R.; Tocchini-Valentini, G.; Díaz-Araya, G.; Díaz-Laviada, I.; Diaz-Meco, M.T.; Fotedar, R.; Hansen, M.; Moscat, J.; Reed, J.C.; Salvesen, G.; Yang, Z.; Diaz-Nido, J.; Izquierdo, M.; Dinesh-Kumar, S.P.; Ding, W.-X.; Distelhorst, C.W.; Subauste, C.S.; Wang, X.; Zhu, X.; Oleinick, N.L.; Diwan, A.; Djavaheri-Mergny, M.; Dokudovskaya, S.; Dong, Z.; Willbold, D.; Dorsey, F.C.; Dosenko, V.; Doxsey, S.; Dreux, M.; Duan, Q.; Duchosal, M.A.; Dugail, I.; Kroemer, G.; Maiuri, M.C.; Duszenko, M.; Edelstein, C.L.; Edinger, A.L.; Egea, G.; Eichinger, L.; Noegel, A.A.; Eissa, N.T.; Lin, W.-C.; Ekmekcioglu, S.; Elazar, Z.; Elgendy, M.; Minucci, S.; Ellerby, L.M.; Er Eng, K.; McInerney, G.M.; Engelbrecht, A.-M.; Loos, B.; Engelender, S.; Erenpreisa, J.; Eskelinen, E.-L.; Espina, V.; Fan, H.; Fan, J.; Fan, Q.-W.; Ilkhanizadeh, S.; Weiss, W.A.; Fang, S.; Monteiro, M.J.; Fang, Y.; Fanto, M.; Farkas, T.; Jäättelä, M.; Farré, J.-C.; Nazarko, T.Y.; Faure, M.; Fechheimer, M.; Furukawa, R.H.; Feng, C.G.; Feng, J.; Feng, Q.; Feng, Y.; Fésüs, L.; Feuer, R.; Figueiredo-Pereira, M.E.; Fimia, G.M.; Fingar, D.C.; Finkbeiner, S.; Finkel, T.; Finley, K.D.; Gottlieb, R.A.; Fisher, E.A.; Fisher, P.B.; Flajolet, M.; Tian, Y.; Florez-McClure, M.L.; Fon, E.A.; Fornai, F.; Fortunato, F.; Fox, H.S.; Franco, R.; Frankel, L.B.; Lund, A.H.; Fransen, M.; Fuentes, J.M.; González-Polo, R.A.; Fujii, J.; Fujisaki, K.; Umemiya-Shirafuji, R.; Fujita, E.; Fukuda, M.; Gaestel, M.; Menon, M.B.; Gailly, P.; Gajewska, M.; Motyl, T.; Galy, V.; Ganesh, S.; Ganetzky, B.; Ganley, I.G.; Gao, F.-B.; Gao, G.F.; Gao, J.; Garcia, L.; Lavandero, S.; Garcia-Manero, G.; Garcia-Marcos, M.; Garmyn, M.; Gartel, A.L.; Gatti, E.; Golstein, P.; Pierre, P.; Gautel, M.; Gawriluk, T.R.; Hale, A.N.; Ledbetter, D.J.; Rucker III, E.B.; Gegg, M.E.; Schapira, A.H.V.; Geng, J.; Harper, J.W.; Germain, M.; Slack, R.S.; Lieberman, A.; Lukacs, N.W.; Ghavami, S.; Halayko, A.J.; Kirshenbaum, L.A.; Yeganeh, B.; Ghosh, P.; Lee, J.; Giammarioli, A.M.; Malorni, W.; Giatromanolaki, A.N.; Sivridis, E.; Gibson, S.B.; Gilkerson, R.W.; Sulzer, D.; Ginger, M.L.; Ginsberg, H.N.; Tabas, I.; Golab, J.; Goligorsky, M.S.; Goncu, E.; Gongora, C.; Le Cam, L.; Pattingre, S.; Gonzalez, C.D.; Vaccaro, M.I.; Gonzalez, R.; González-Estévez, C.; Gorbunov, N.V.; Gorski, S.; Goruppi, S.; Gozuacik, D.; Green, K.N.; Gregorc, A.; Gros, F.; Muller, S.; Grose, C.; Grunt, T.W.; Guan, K.-L.; Guichard, S.M.; Gukovskaya, A.S.; Gukovsky, I.; Gunst, J.; Van Den Berghe, G.; Vanhorebeek, I.; Gustafsson, A.B.; Halonen, S.K.; Hamasaki, M.; Noda, T.; Yoshimori, T.; Han, F.; Hancock, M.K.; Harada, H.; Harada, M.; Hardt, S.E.; Harris, A.L.; Harris, J.; Harris, S.D.; Hashimoto, M.; Hayashi, S.-I.; Hazelhurst, L.A.; He, C.; Levine, B.; Terada, A.S.; He, Y.-W.; Rathmell, J.C.; Taylor, G.A.; Hébert, M.-J.; Heidenreich, K.A.; Helgason, G.V.; Holyoake, T.L.; Herman, B.; Reiter, R.J.; Herman, P.K.; Hetz, C.; Hilfiker, S.; Navarro, M.; Hill, J.A.; Nemchenko, A.; Yoshimoto, K.; Hofmann, T.G.; Höhfeld, J.; Hong, M.-H.; Hood, D.A.; Hotamisligil, G.S.; Houwerzijl, E.J.; Høyer-Hansen, M.; Hu, B.; Hu, C.-A.A.; Hu, H.-M.; Hua, Y.; Huang, C.; Liu, B.; Huang, S.; Sinicrope, F.A.; Huang, W.-P.; Huber, T.B.; Huh, W.-K.; Hung, T.-H.; Hupp, T.R.; Hur, G.M.; Hurley, J.B.; Hussain, S.N.A.; Hussey, P.J.; Hwang, J.J.; Hwang, S.; Ichihara, A.; Inoki, K.; Into, T.; Iovanna, J.L.; Ip, N.Y.; Isaka, Y.; Ishida, H.; Isobe, K.-I.; Iwasaki, A.; Izumi, Y.; Jaakkola, P.M.; Jackson, G.R.; Jackson, W.T.; Janji, B.; Jendrach, M.; Jeon, J.-H.; Jeung, E.-B.; Ma, Y.; Wang, D.; Jiang, J.X.; Jiang, M.; Jiang, Q.; Jiang, X.; Overholtzer, M.; Jiménez, A.; Revuelta, J.L.; Jin, S.; Joe, C.O.; Lee, G.M.; Johansen, T.; Lamark, T.; Johnson, D.E.; Jones, N.L.; Joseph, S.K.; Joubert, A.M.; Juhász, G.; Kovács, A.L.; László, L.; Lõw, P.; Sass, M.; Juillerat-Jeanneret, L.; Jung, C.H.; Jung, Y.-K.; Kaarniranta, K.; Kabuta, T.; Wada, K.; Kadowaki, M.; Kagedal, K.; Kamada, Y.; Kaminskyy, V.O.; Zhivotovsky, B.; Kanamori, H.; Takemura, G.; Kang, C.; Kang, K.B.; Il Kang, K.; Kang, R.; Lotze, M.T.; Tang, D.; Kanki, T.; Kanneganti, T.-D.; Kanno, H.; Karantza, V.; Kaushal, G.P.; Kawazoe, Y.; Kehrl, J.H.; Kelekar, A.; Kerkhoff, C.; Kessel, D.H.; Khalil, H.; Kiel, J.A.K.W.; Van Der Klei, I.J.; Kiger, A.A.; Kihara, A.; Obara, K.; Kim, D.R.; Kim, D.-H.; Yoon, S.-Y.; Kim, E.-K.; Yu, S.-W.; Kim, H.-R.; Kim, J.-S.; Kim, J.H.; Kim, J.C.; Meisler, M.H.; McQuibban, G.A.; Kim, S.W.; Kim, Y.-S.; Koh, Y.H.; Kim, Y.; Marten, M.R.; Kimchi, A.; Kimmelman, A.C.; King, J.S.; Ryan, K.M.; Kinsella, T.J.; Kirkin, V.; Kitamoto, K.; Kitazato, K.; Klein, L.; Klimecki, W.T.; Klucken, J.; Knecht, E.; Ko, B.C.B.; Koch, J.C.; Lingor, P.; Tönges, L.; Koh, J.-Y.; Koike, M.; Uchiyama, Y.; Komatsu, M.; Tanaka, K.; Kominami, E.; Ueno, T.; Kong, H.J.; Kong, W.-J.; Korolchuk, V.I.; Kotake, Y.; Koukourakis, M.I.; Kraft, C.; Krainc, D.; McLean, P.J.; Tannous, B.A.; Krämer, H.; Kretz-Remy, C.; Krichevsky, A.M.; Krut, O.; Ktistakis, N.T.; Kuan, C.-Y.; Kucharczyk, R.; Sirko, A.; Zoladek, T.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, R.; Kundu, M.; Kung, H.-J.; Kwon, H.J.; La Spada, A.R.; Spector, S.A.; Lafont, F.; Landry, J.; Lavoie, J.N.; Lane, J.D.; Lapaquette, P.; Laporte, J.F.; Layfield, R.; Lazo, P.A.; Mollinedo, F.; Le, W.; Li, S.; Lee, A.J.X.; Swanton, C.; Lee, B.-W.; Lee, J.-H.; Levy, E.; Nixon, R.A.; Yang, D.-S.; Lee, M.; Lee, M.-S.; Lee, S.H.; Leeuwenburgh, C.; Legembre, P.; Legouis, R.; Lehmann, M.; Lei, H.-Y.; Lei, Q.-Y.; Leib, D.A.; Leiro, J.; Lemasters, J.J.; Lemoine, A.; Lesniak, M.S.; Lev, D.; McConkey, D.J.; Levenson, V.V.; Li, F.; Vierstra, R.D.; Li, J.-L.; Li, W.; Li, X.-J.; Li, Y.-B.; Yin, J.-J.; Li, Y.-P.; Liang, C.; Ou, J.-H.J.; Liang, Q.; Liao, Y.-F.; Liberski, P.P.; Sikorska, B.; Lim, H.J.; Lim, K.-L.; Pervaiz, S.; Soong, T.W.; Lim, K.; Lin, C.-F.; Lin, F.-C.; Lin, J.; Lin, K.; Linden, R.; Lippincott-Schwartz, J.; Lisanti, M.P.; Liton, P.B.; Liu, C.-F.; Liu, K.; Liu, L.; Wang, F.; Liu, Q.A.; Liu, W.; Phang, J.M.; Zabirnyk, O.; Liu, Y.-C.; Lockshin, R.A.; Meléndez, A.; Zakeri, Z.; López-Otín, C.; Lossi, L.; Merighi, A.; Lu, B.; Macian, F.; Santambrogio, L.; MacKeigan, J.P.; Macleod, K.F.; Madeo, F.; Maiuri, L.; Malagoli, D.; Malicdan, M.C.V.; Man, N.; Zhou, C.-Z.; Mandelkow, E.-M.; Manov, I.; Mao, X.; Marambaud, P.; Marcel, Y.L.; Ouimet, M.; Marchbank, K.; Waters, S.L.; Whitehouse, C.A.; Marchetti, P.; Marciniak, S.J.; Mardi, M.; Mariño, G.; Markaki, M.; Tavernarakis, N.; Martin, S.J.; Martinand-Mari, C.; Martinet, W.; Martinez-Vicente, M.; Vila, M.; Masini, M.; Matarrese, P.; Matsuo, S.; Mayer, A.; Mazure, N.M.; McConnell, M.J.; McDermott, C.; McDonald, C.; McKenna, S.L.; McLaughlin, B.; McMaster, C.R.; Rosen, K.; Meijer, A.J.; Melia, T.J.; Mena, M.A.; Menendez, J.A.; Menna-Barreto, R.F.S.; Menzies, F.M.; Moreau, K.; Rubinsztein, D.C.; Mercer, C.A.; Merry, D.E.; Meyer, C.G.; Miao, C.-Y.; Miao, J.-Y.; Michiels, C.; Milojkovic, A.; Miracco, C.; Miranti, C.K.; Mitroulis, I.; Ritis, K.; Miyazawa, K.; Mizushima, N.; Mohseni, S.; Strålfors, P.; Molero, X.; Mollereau, B.; Momoi, T.; Monick, M.M.; Moore, M.N.; Mora, R.; Moriyasu, Y.; Mostowy, S.; Mottram, J.C.; Moussa, C.E.-H.; Simone, C.; Münz, C.; Murphy, L.O.; Nyfeler, B.; Murphy, M.E.; Musarò, A.; Mysorekar, I.; Nagata, E.; Nagata, K.; Nahimana, A.; Nakagawa, T.; Nakano, H.; Nakatogawa, H.; Nanjundan, M.; Narendra, D.P.; Youle, R.J.; Narita, M.; Netea, M.G.; Neufeld, T.P.; Ney, P.A.; Nguyen, H.P.; Nie, D.; Nishino, I.; Noguchi, S.; Nislow, C.; Notterpek, L.; Novak, I.; Nozaki, T.; Nukina, N.; Nürnberger, T.; Oberley, T.D.; Oddo, S.; Ogawa, M.; Sasakawa, C.; Ohashi, T.; Shimada, Y.; Okamoto, K.; Welford, S.M.; Olsson, S.; Opota, O.; Osborne, T.F.; Ostrander, G.K.; Otsu, K.; Paganetti, P.; Pallet, N.; Palmer, G.E.; Pan, T.; Pandey, U.B.; Papassideri, I.; Paris, I.; Segura-Aguilar, J.; Patschan, S.; Patterson, C.; Pawelek, J.M.; Peng, J.; Perlmutter, D.H.; Perrotta, I.; Perry, G.; Wang, M.; Peter, M.; Peters, G.J.; Petersen, M.; Petrovski, G.; Pierrefite-Carle, V.; Pierron, G.; Pinkas-Kramarski, R.; Piras, A.; Piri, N.; Platanias, L.C.; Shanmugam, M.; Pöggeler, S.; Poletti, A.; Poüs, C.; Pozuelo-Rubio, M.; Prætorius-Ibba, M.; Prasad, A.; Produit-Zengaffinen, N.; Schorderet, D.F.; Progulske-Fox, A.; Proikas-Cezanne, T.; Przyklenk, K.; Puertollano, R.; Qian, S.-B.; Qin, L.; Qin, Z.-H.; Wang, G.; Zhang, H.-L.; Quaggin, S.E.; Raben, N.; Rabkin, S.W.; Rahman, I.; Rami, A.; Randall, G.; Randow, F.; Williams, R.L.; Yao, T.-P.; Ravikumar, B.; Ray, S.K.; Reed, B.H.; Régnier-Vigouroux, A.; Reichert, A.S.; Reiners Jr., J.J.; Ren, J.; Rhodes, C.J.; Rizzo, E.; Robbins, J.; Roberge, M.; Roca, H.; De Córdoba, S.R.; Rohrer, B.; Roninson, I.B.; Rost-Roszkowska, M.M.; Rouis, M.; Rouschop, K.M.A.; Rubin, B.P.; Ruckdeschel, K.; Rudich, A.; Rudolf, E.; Ruiz-Opazo, N.; Russo, R.; Sabatini, D.M.; Sarkar, S.; Sadoshima, J.; Sakagami, H.; Sakai, Y.; Salekdeh, G.H.; Salomoni, P.; Salvaterra, P.M.; Salvioli, R.; Sánchez-Alcázar, J.A.; Sánchez-Prieto, R.; Scorrano, L.; Schiaffino, S.; Sankar, U.; Sansanwal, P.; Sarwal, M.; Saran, S.; Sasnauskiene, A.; Sato, K.; Sato, M.; Scharl, M.; Schätzl, H.M.; Scheper, W.; Schneider, M.E.; Schneider-Stock, R.; Schoenlein, P.V.; Schüller, C.; Schwartz, G.K.; Sealy, L.; Seglen, P.O.; Seiliez, I.; Seleverstov, O.; Sell, C.; Seo, J.B.; Separovic, D.; Setaluri, V.; Setoguchi, T.; Shacka, J.J.; Zhang, J.; Shapiro, I.M.; Shaulian, E.; Shaw, R.J.; Shelhamer, J.H.; Shen, H.-M.; Shen, W.-C.; Sheng, Z.-H.; Shi, Y.; Shibuya, K.; Shidoji, Y.; Shieh, J.-J.; Shih, C.-M.; Shimizu, S.; Shintani, T.; Shirihai, O.S.; Shore, G.C.; Sibirny, A.A.; Sidhu, S.B.; Simmons, A.; Simon, A.K.; Simon, H.-U.; Simonsen, A.; Sinclair, D.A.; Singh, R.; Sinha, D.; Siu, P.M.; Skop, V.; Skulachev, V.P.; Smaili, S.S.; Smith, D.R.; Soengas, M.S.; Soldati, T.; Song, X.; Sood, A.K.; Spies, C.D.; Von Haefen, C.; Springer, W.; Srinivasula, S.M.; Stefanis, L.; Steffan, J.S.; 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Wang, Z.; Zhang, J.-P.; Wang, Z.C.; Wansink, D.G.; Ward, D.M.; Watada, H.; Webster, P.; Wei, L.; Weihl, C.C.; Wen, L.-P.; Whitworth, A.J.; Wileman, T.; Wilkinson, S.; Williamson, P.R.; Wouters, B.G.; Wu, C.; Wu, D.-C.; Wyttenbach, A.; Xavier, R.J.; Xi, Z.; Xia, P.; Xiao, G.; Xie, Z.; Xu, D.-Z.; Xu, J.; Xu, L.; Xu, X.; Yamashina, S.; Yamashita, M.; Yan, X.; Yanagida, M.; Yang, E.; Yang, S.Y.; Yang, W.; Yao, M.-C.; Yin, X.-M.; Yoo, O.-J.; Yoon, G.; Yorimitsu, T.; Yoshikawa, Y.; You, H.J.; Younes, A.; Yuan, Z.-M.; Yue, Z.; Yun, C.-H.; Yuzaki, M.; David Zacks, E.; Zacksenhaus, L.; Zaffaroni, N.; Zeh III, H.J.; Zeitlin, S.O.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.-Y.; Zhang, X.D.; Zhao, Y.; Zhu, W.-G.; Zhao, Z.J.; Park, Junsoo; Zheng, X.; Zhong, Q.; Zhu, C.; Zhu, X.-F.; Zong, W.-X.; Zorzano, A.; Zschocke, J.; Zuckerbraun, B.; Xie, Z.; Yamamoto, A.; Rao, V. A. / Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy.

In: Autophagy, Vol. 8, No. 4, 2012, p. 445-544.

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@article{daef6dd02b3048b08943eff805fbe421,
title = "Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy",
author = "D.J. Klionsky and S.K. Backues and C.R. Bartholomew and D. Bridges and J.E. Gestwicki and T. Han and M. Jin and J.K. Kim and J.D. Lin and M.A. Lynch-Day and K. Mao and U. Nair and K.R. Parzych and M. Umekawa and K. Wang and W.-L. Yen and M. Zhao and L.J. Olsen and F.C. Abdalla and M. Marcondes and E.C.M. Silva-Zacarin and H. Abeliovich and R.T. Abraham and A. Acevedo-Arozena and K. Adeli and L. Agholme and M. Agnello and R. Chiarelli and M.C. Roccheri and P. Agostinis and J.A. Aguirre-Ghiso and H.J. Ahn and O. Ait-Mohamed and S. Ait-Si-Ali and T. Akematsu and S. Akira and T. Saitoh and H.M. Al-Younes and M.A. Al-Zeer and T.F. Meyer and M.L. Albert and R.L. Albin and J.J. Dowling and J. Alegre-Abarrategui and R. Wade-Martins and M.F. Aleo and A. Fanzani and F. Rovetta and M. Alirezaei and F.V. Chisari and J.L. Whitton and A. Almasan and M. Almonte-Becerril and {Kouri Flores}, J.B. and A. Amano and R. Amaravadi and S. Amarnath and D.H. Fowler and A.O. Amer and M.E. Drew and N. Andrieu-Abadie and M. Poirot and C. Vindis and V. Anantharam and A.G. Kanthasamy and A. Kanthasamy and D.K. Ann and S. Anoopkumar-Dukie and G.D. Grant and H. Aoki and N. Apostolova and G. Arancia and M. Condello and S. Meschini and J.P. Aris and K. Asanuma and Y. Tomino and N.Y.O. Asare and H. Ashida and V. Askanas and A. Nogalska and D.S. Askew and P. Auberger and F. Bost and P. Gual and F. Luciano and S. Rocchi and M. Baba and E.H. Baehrecke and B.A. Bahr and X.-Y. Bai and X. Chen and Y. Bailly and R. Baiocchi and G. Baldini and W. Balduini and A. Ballabio and N. Brunetti-Pierri and C. Settembre and B.A. Bamber and E.T.W. Bampton and G. Melino and G. Bánhegyi and D.C. Bassham and {Bast Jr.}, R.C. and Z. Fan and G. Lopez-Berestein and Z. Lu and B. Ozpolat and H. Batoko and B.-H. Bay and I. Beau and A. Esclatine and D.M. Béchet and T.J. Begley and C. Behl and C. Behrends and I. Dikic and S. Bekri and B. Bellaire and L.J. Bendall and L. Benetti and L. Berliocchi and H. Bernardi and A.M.J. Sanchez and F. Bernassola and G. Marfe and C. Palumbo and S. Besteiro and I. Bhatia-Kissova and X. Bi and M. Biard-Piechaczyk and L. Espert and J.S. Blum and L.H. Boise and S. Lonial and S.-Y. Sun and P. Bonaldo and M. Sandri and D.L. Boone and B.C. Bornhauser and J.-P. Bourquin and K.R. Bortoluci and I. Bossis and P. Boya and M. Boyer-Guittaut and P.V. Bozhkov and N.R. Brady and C. Brancolini and A. Brech and I.P. Nezis and T.E. Rusten and H. Stenmark and J.E. Brenman and A. Brennand and P.A.M. Michels and E.H. Bresnick and Y.-A. Kang and P. Brest and P. Hofman and B. Mograbi and M.L. Bristol and D.A. Gewirtz and P.S. Brookes and G.V.W. Johnson and E.J. Brown and J.H. Brumell and J. Huang and P.K. Kim and U.T. Brunk and T. Kurz and D.E. Bulman and S.J. Bultman and G. Bultynck and J.B. Parys and L.F. Burbulla and R. Krüger and W. Bursch and J.P. Butchar and W. Buzgariu and B. Galliot and S.P. Bydlowski and K. Cadwell and M. Cahová and Z. Papackova and D. Cai and J. Cai and Q. Cai and B. Calabretta and F. Sotgia and J. Calvo-Garrido and R. Escalante and N. Camougrand and S. Manon and M. Priault and M. Campanella and J. Campos-Salinas and E. Gonzalez-Rey and F.J. Oliver and E. Candi and L. Cao and A.B. Caplan and S.R. Carding and S.M. Cardoso and P.I. Moreira and J.S. Carew and S.T. Nawrocki and C.R. Carlin and V. Carmignac and M. Durbeej and L.A.M. Carneiro and S. Carra and H.H. Kampinga and R.A. Caruso and G. Casari and C. Casas and R. Castino and C. Isidoro and E. Cebollero and F. Reggiori and F. Cecconi and M.R. Ciriolo and M. Piacentini and J. Celli and H. Chaachouay and H.P. Rodemann and H.-J. Chae and C.-Y. Chai and D.C. Chan and E.Y. Chan and G.H. Coombs and R.C.-C. Chang and C.-M. Che and C.-N. Lok and L.-K. Sy and C.-C. Chen and W.-W. Lin and G.-C. Chen and W.Y. Yang and G.-Q. Chen and M. Chen and J. Wang and Q. Chen and S.S.-L. Chen and P.-Y. Ke and Y.-L. Lin and W. Chen and Y.-G. Chen and Y. Liu and L. Yu and Y. Chen and J.-L. Guan and R. Towns and J.W. Wiley and Y.-J. Chen and Z. Chen and A. Cheng and C.H.K. Cheng and Y. Cheng and H.-G. Wang and J.-M. Yang and W.S. El-Deiry and H. Cheong and C.B. Thompson and J.-H. Cheong and S. Cherry and R. Chess-Williams and Z.H. Cheung and E. Chevet and H.-L. Chiang and T. Chiba and L.-S. Chin and L. Li and Z. Mao and S.-H. Chiou and C.H. Cho and D.-H. Cho and A.M.K. Choi and J.A. Haspel and E.P. Henske and K. Nakahira and S.W. Ryter and D. Choi and K.S. Choi and M.E. Choi and K. Münger and S. Chouaib and D. Choubey and V. Choubey and A. Kaasik and C.T. Chu and H. Rabinowich and T.-H. Chuang and S.-H. Chueh and T. Chun and O.K. Park and Y.-J. Chwae and M.-L. Chye and R. Ciarcia and S. Florio and G.E. Granato and M.J. Clague and R.S.B. Clark and P.G.H. Clarke and J. Puyal and R. Clarke and T. Saha and P. Codogno and H.A. Coller and M.I. Colombo and S. Comincini and F. Condorelli and M.R. Cookson and I. Coppens and R. Corbalan and P. Cossart and P. Costelli and S. 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Tocchini-Valentini and G. Díaz-Araya and I. Díaz-Laviada and M.T. Diaz-Meco and R. Fotedar and M. Hansen and J. Moscat and J.C. Reed and G. Salvesen and Z. Yang and J. Diaz-Nido and M. Izquierdo and S.P. Dinesh-Kumar and W.-X. Ding and C.W. Distelhorst and C.S. Subauste and X. Wang and X. Zhu and N.L. Oleinick and A. Diwan and M. Djavaheri-Mergny and S. Dokudovskaya and Z. Dong and D. Willbold and F.C. Dorsey and V. Dosenko and S. Doxsey and M. Dreux and Q. Duan and M.A. Duchosal and I. Dugail and G. Kroemer and M.C. Maiuri and M. Duszenko and C.L. Edelstein and A.L. Edinger and G. Egea and L. Eichinger and A.A. Noegel and N.T. Eissa and W.-C. Lin and S. Ekmekcioglu and Z. Elazar and M. Elgendy and S. Minucci and L.M. Ellerby and {Er Eng}, K. and G.M. McInerney and A.-M. Engelbrecht and B. Loos and S. Engelender and J. Erenpreisa and E.-L. Eskelinen and V. Espina and H. Fan and J. Fan and Q.-W. Fan and S. Ilkhanizadeh and W.A. Weiss and S. Fang and M.J. Monteiro and Y. Fang and M. Fanto and T. Farkas and M. Jäättelä and J.-C. Farré and T.Y. Nazarko and M. Faure and M. Fechheimer and R.H. Furukawa and C.G. Feng and J. Feng and Q. Feng and Y. Feng and L. Fésüs and R. Feuer and M.E. Figueiredo-Pereira and G.M. Fimia and D.C. Fingar and S. Finkbeiner and T. Finkel and K.D. Finley and R.A. Gottlieb and E.A. Fisher and P.B. Fisher and M. Flajolet and Y. Tian and M.L. Florez-McClure and E.A. Fon and F. Fornai and F. Fortunato and H.S. Fox and R. Franco and L.B. Frankel and A.H. Lund and M. Fransen and J.M. Fuentes and R.A. González-Polo and J. Fujii and K. Fujisaki and R. Umemiya-Shirafuji and E. Fujita and M. Fukuda and M. Gaestel and M.B. Menon and P. Gailly and M. Gajewska and T. Motyl and V. Galy and S. Ganesh and B. Ganetzky and I.G. Ganley and F.-B. Gao and G.F. Gao and J. Gao and L. Garcia and S. Lavandero and G. Garcia-Manero and M. Garcia-Marcos and M. Garmyn and A.L. Gartel and E. Gatti and P. Golstein and P. Pierre and M. Gautel and T.R. Gawriluk and A.N. Hale and D.J. Ledbetter and {Rucker III}, E.B. and M.E. Gegg and A.H.V. Schapira and J. Geng and J.W. Harper and M. Germain and R.S. Slack and A. Lieberman and N.W. Lukacs and S. Ghavami and A.J. Halayko and L.A. Kirshenbaum and B. Yeganeh and P. Ghosh and J. Lee and A.M. Giammarioli and W. Malorni and A.N. Giatromanolaki and E. Sivridis and S.B. Gibson and R.W. Gilkerson and D. Sulzer and M.L. Ginger and H.N. Ginsberg and I. Tabas and J. Golab and M.S. Goligorsky and E. Goncu and C. Gongora and {Le Cam}, L. and S. Pattingre and C.D. Gonzalez and M.I. Vaccaro and R. Gonzalez and C. González-Estévez and N.V. Gorbunov and S. Gorski and S. Goruppi and D. Gozuacik and K.N. Green and A. Gregorc and F. Gros and S. Muller and C. Grose and T.W. Grunt and K.-L. Guan and S.M. Guichard and A.S. Gukovskaya and I. Gukovsky and J. Gunst and {Van Den Berghe}, G. and I. Vanhorebeek and A.B. Gustafsson and S.K. Halonen and M. Hamasaki and T. Noda and T. Yoshimori and F. Han and M.K. Hancock and H. Harada and M. Harada and S.E. Hardt and A.L. Harris and J. Harris and S.D. Harris and M. Hashimoto and S.-I. Hayashi and L.A. Hazelhurst and C. He and B. Levine and A.S. Terada and Y.-W. He and J.C. Rathmell and G.A. Taylor and M.-J. Hébert and K.A. Heidenreich and G.V. Helgason and T.L. Holyoake and B. Herman and R.J. Reiter and P.K. Herman and C. Hetz and S. Hilfiker and M. Navarro and J.A. Hill and A. Nemchenko and K. Yoshimoto and T.G. Hofmann and J. Höhfeld and M.-H. Hong and D.A. Hood and G.S. Hotamisligil and E.J. Houwerzijl and M. Høyer-Hansen and B. Hu and C.-A.A. Hu and H.-M. Hu and Y. Hua and C. Huang and B. Liu and S. Huang and F.A. Sinicrope and W.-P. Huang and T.B. Huber and W.-K. Huh and T.-H. Hung and T.R. Hupp and G.M. Hur and J.B. Hurley and S.N.A. Hussain and P.J. Hussey and J.J. Hwang and S. Hwang and A. Ichihara and K. Inoki and T. Into and J.L. Iovanna and N.Y. Ip and Y. Isaka and H. Ishida and K.-I. Isobe and A. Iwasaki and Y. Izumi and P.M. Jaakkola and G.R. Jackson and W.T. Jackson and B. Janji and M. Jendrach and J.-H. Jeon and E.-B. Jeung and Y. Ma and D. Wang and J.X. Jiang and M. Jiang and Q. Jiang and X. Jiang and M. Overholtzer and A. Jiménez and J.L. Revuelta and S. Jin and C.O. Joe and G.M. Lee and T. Johansen and T. Lamark and D.E. Johnson and N.L. Jones and S.K. Joseph and A.M. Joubert and G. Juhász and A.L. Kovács and L. László and P. Lõw and M. Sass and L. Juillerat-Jeanneret and C.H. Jung and Y.-K. Jung and K. Kaarniranta and T. Kabuta and K. Wada and M. Kadowaki and K. Kagedal and Y. Kamada and V.O. Kaminskyy and B. Zhivotovsky and H. Kanamori and G. Takemura and C. Kang and K.B. Kang and {Il Kang}, K. and R. Kang and M.T. Lotze and D. Tang and T. Kanki and T.-D. Kanneganti and H. Kanno and V. Karantza and G.P. Kaushal and Y. Kawazoe and J.H. Kehrl and A. Kelekar and C. Kerkhoff and D.H. Kessel and H. Khalil and J.A.K.W. Kiel and {Van Der Klei}, I.J. and A.A. Kiger and A. Kihara and K. Obara and D.R. Kim and D.-H. Kim and S.-Y. Yoon and E.-K. Kim and S.-W. Yu and H.-R. Kim and J.-S. Kim and J.H. Kim and J.C. Kim and M.H. Meisler and G.A. McQuibban and S.W. Kim and Y.-S. Kim and Y.H. Koh and Y. Kim and M.R. Marten and A. Kimchi and A.C. Kimmelman and J.S. King and K.M. Ryan and T.J. Kinsella and V. Kirkin and K. Kitamoto and K. Kitazato and L. Klein and W.T. Klimecki and J. Klucken and E. Knecht and B.C.B. Ko and J.C. Koch and P. Lingor and L. Tönges and J.-Y. Koh and M. Koike and Y. Uchiyama and M. Komatsu and K. Tanaka and E. Kominami and T. Ueno and H.J. Kong and W.-J. Kong and V.I. Korolchuk and Y. Kotake and M.I. Koukourakis and C. Kraft and D. Krainc and P.J. McLean and B.A. Tannous and H. Krämer and C. Kretz-Remy and A.M. Krichevsky and O. Krut and N.T. Ktistakis and C.-Y. Kuan and R. Kucharczyk and A. Sirko and T. Zoladek and A. Kumar and R. Kumar and M. Kundu and H.-J. Kung and H.J. Kwon and {La Spada}, A.R. and S.A. Spector and F. Lafont and J. Landry and J.N. Lavoie and J.D. Lane and P. Lapaquette and J.F. Laporte and R. Layfield and P.A. Lazo and F. Mollinedo and W. Le and S. Li and A.J.X. Lee and C. Swanton and B.-W. Lee and J.-H. Lee and E. Levy and R.A. Nixon and D.-S. Yang and M. Lee and M.-S. Lee and S.H. Lee and C. Leeuwenburgh and P. Legembre and R. Legouis and M. Lehmann and H.-Y. Lei and Q.-Y. Lei and D.A. Leib and J. Leiro and J.J. Lemasters and A. Lemoine and M.S. Lesniak and D. Lev and D.J. McConkey and V.V. Levenson and F. Li and R.D. Vierstra and J.-L. Li and W. Li and X.-J. Li and Y.-B. Li and J.-J. Yin and Y.-P. Li and C. Liang and J.-H.J. Ou and Q. Liang and Y.-F. Liao and P.P. Liberski and B. Sikorska and H.J. Lim and K.-L. Lim and S. Pervaiz and T.W. Soong and K. Lim and C.-F. Lin and F.-C. Lin and J. Lin and K. Lin and R. Linden and J. Lippincott-Schwartz and M.P. Lisanti and P.B. Liton and C.-F. Liu and K. Liu and L. Liu and F. Wang and Q.A. Liu and W. Liu and J.M. Phang and O. Zabirnyk and Y.-C. Liu and R.A. Lockshin and A. 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year = "2012",
volume = "8",
number = "4",
pages = "445--544",
journal = "Autophagy",
issn = "1554-8627",

}

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T1 - Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy

A1 - Klionsky,D.J.

A1 - Backues,S.K.

A1 - Bartholomew,C.R.

A1 - Bridges,D.

A1 - Gestwicki,J.E.

A1 - Han,T.

A1 - Jin,M.

A1 - Kim,J.K.

A1 - Lin,J.D.

A1 - Lynch-Day,M.A.

A1 - Mao,K.

A1 - Nair,U.

A1 - Parzych,K.R.

A1 - Umekawa,M.

A1 - Wang,K.

A1 - Yen,W.-L.

A1 - Zhao,M.

A1 - Olsen,L.J.

A1 - Abdalla,F.C.

A1 - Marcondes,M.

A1 - Silva-Zacarin,E.C.M.

A1 - Abeliovich,H.

A1 - Abraham,R.T.

A1 - Acevedo-Arozena,A.

A1 - Adeli,K.

A1 - Agholme,L.

A1 - Agnello,M.

A1 - Chiarelli,R.

A1 - Roccheri,M.C.

A1 - Agostinis,P.

A1 - Aguirre-Ghiso,J.A.

A1 - Ahn,H.J.

A1 - Ait-Mohamed,O.

A1 - Ait-Si-Ali,S.

A1 - Akematsu,T.

A1 - Akira,S.

A1 - Saitoh,T.

A1 - Al-Younes,H.M.

A1 - Al-Zeer,M.A.

A1 - Meyer,T.F.

A1 - Albert,M.L.

A1 - Albin,R.L.

A1 - Dowling,J.J.

A1 - Alegre-Abarrategui,J.

A1 - Wade-Martins,R.

A1 - Aleo,M.F.

A1 - Fanzani,A.

A1 - Rovetta,F.

A1 - Alirezaei,M.

A1 - Chisari,F.V.

A1 - Whitton,J.L.

A1 - Almasan,A.

A1 - Almonte-Becerril,M.

A1 - Kouri Flores,J.B.

A1 - Amano,A.

A1 - Amaravadi,R.

A1 - Amarnath,S.

A1 - Fowler,D.H.

A1 - Amer,A.O.

A1 - Drew,M.E.

A1 - Andrieu-Abadie,N.

A1 - Poirot,M.

A1 - Vindis,C.

A1 - Anantharam,V.

A1 - Kanthasamy,A.G.

A1 - Kanthasamy,A.

A1 - Ann,D.K.

A1 - Anoopkumar-Dukie,S.

A1 - Grant,G.D.

A1 - Aoki,H.

A1 - Apostolova,N.

A1 - Arancia,G.

A1 - Condello,M.

A1 - Meschini,S.

A1 - Aris,J.P.

A1 - Asanuma,K.

A1 - Tomino,Y.

A1 - Asare,N.Y.O.

A1 - Ashida,H.

A1 - Askanas,V.

A1 - Nogalska,A.

A1 - Askew,D.S.

A1 - Auberger,P.

A1 - Bost,F.

A1 - Gual,P.

A1 - Luciano,F.

A1 - Rocchi,S.

A1 - Baba,M.

A1 - Baehrecke,E.H.

A1 - Bahr,B.A.

A1 - Bai,X.-Y.

A1 - Chen,X.

A1 - Bailly,Y.

A1 - Baiocchi,R.

A1 - Baldini,G.

A1 - Balduini,W.

A1 - Ballabio,A.

A1 - Brunetti-Pierri,N.

A1 - Settembre,C.

A1 - Bamber,B.A.

A1 - Bampton,E.T.W.

A1 - Melino,G.

A1 - Bánhegyi,G.

A1 - Bassham,D.C.

A1 - Bast Jr.,R.C.

A1 - Fan,Z.

A1 - Lopez-Berestein,G.

A1 - Lu,Z.

A1 - Ozpolat,B.

A1 - Batoko,H.

A1 - Bay,B.-H.

A1 - Beau,I.

A1 - Esclatine,A.

A1 - Béchet,D.M.

A1 - Begley,T.J.

A1 - Behl,C.

A1 - Behrends,C.

A1 - Dikic,I.

A1 - Bekri,S.

A1 - Bellaire,B.

A1 - Bendall,L.J.

A1 - Benetti,L.

A1 - Berliocchi,L.

A1 - Bernardi,H.

A1 - Sanchez,A.M.J.

A1 - Bernassola,F.

A1 - Marfe,G.

A1 - Palumbo,C.

A1 - Besteiro,S.

A1 - Bhatia-Kissova,I.

A1 - Bi,X.

A1 - Biard-Piechaczyk,M.

A1 - Espert,L.

A1 - Blum,J.S.

A1 - Boise,L.H.

A1 - Lonial,S.

A1 - Sun,S.-Y.

A1 - Bonaldo,P.

A1 - Sandri,M.

A1 - Boone,D.L.

A1 - Bornhauser,B.C.

A1 - Bourquin,J.-P.

A1 - Bortoluci,K.R.

A1 - Bossis,I.

A1 - Boya,P.

A1 - Boyer-Guittaut,M.

A1 - Bozhkov,P.V.

A1 - Brady,N.R.

A1 - Brancolini,C.

A1 - Brech,A.

A1 - Nezis,I.P.

A1 - Rusten,T.E.

A1 - Stenmark,H.

A1 - Brenman,J.E.

A1 - Brennand,A.

A1 - Michels,P.A.M.

A1 - Bresnick,E.H.

A1 - Kang,Y.-A.

A1 - Brest,P.

A1 - Hofman,P.

A1 - Mograbi,B.

A1 - Bristol,M.L.

A1 - Gewirtz,D.A.

A1 - Brookes,P.S.

A1 - Johnson,G.V.W.

A1 - Brown,E.J.

A1 - Brumell,J.H.

A1 - Huang,J.

A1 - Kim,P.K.

A1 - Brunk,U.T.

A1 - Kurz,T.

A1 - Bulman,D.E.

A1 - Bultman,S.J.

A1 - Bultynck,G.

A1 - Parys,J.B.

A1 - Burbulla,L.F.

A1 - Krüger,R.

A1 - Bursch,W.

A1 - Butchar,J.P.

A1 - Buzgariu,W.

A1 - Galliot,B.

A1 - Bydlowski,S.P.

A1 - Cadwell,K.

A1 - Cahová,M.

A1 - Papackova,Z.

A1 - Cai,D.

A1 - Cai,J.

A1 - Cai,Q.

A1 - Calabretta,B.

A1 - Sotgia,F.

A1 - Calvo-Garrido,J.

A1 - Escalante,R.

A1 - Camougrand,N.

A1 - Manon,S.

A1 - Priault,M.

A1 - Campanella,M.

A1 - Campos-Salinas,J.

A1 - Gonzalez-Rey,E.

A1 - Oliver,F.J.

A1 - Candi,E.

A1 - Cao,L.

A1 - Caplan,A.B.

A1 - Carding,S.R.

A1 - Cardoso,S.M.

A1 - Moreira,P.I.

A1 - Carew,J.S.

A1 - Nawrocki,S.T.

A1 - Carlin,C.R.

A1 - Carmignac,V.

A1 - Durbeej,M.

A1 - Carneiro,L.A.M.

A1 - Carra,S.

A1 - Kampinga,H.H.

A1 - Caruso,R.A.

A1 - Casari,G.

A1 - Casas,C.

A1 - Castino,R.

A1 - Isidoro,C.

A1 - Cebollero,E.

A1 - Reggiori,F.

A1 - Cecconi,F.

A1 - Ciriolo,M.R.

A1 - Piacentini,M.

A1 - Celli,J.

A1 - Chaachouay,H.

A1 - Rodemann,H.P.

A1 - Chae,H.-J.

A1 - Chai,C.-Y.

A1 - Chan,D.C.

A1 - Chan,E.Y.

A1 - Coombs,G.H.

A1 - Chang,R.C.-C.

A1 - Che,C.-M.

A1 - Lok,C.-N.

A1 - Sy,L.-K.

A1 - Chen,C.-C.

A1 - Lin,W.-W.

A1 - Chen,G.-C.

A1 - Yang,W.Y.

A1 - Chen,G.-Q.

A1 - Chen,M.

A1 - Wang,J.

A1 - Chen,Q.

A1 - Chen,S.S.-L.

A1 - Ke,P.-Y.

A1 - Lin,Y.-L.

A1 - Chen,W.

A1 - Chen,Y.-G.

A1 - Liu,Y.

A1 - Yu,L.

A1 - Chen,Y.

A1 - Guan,J.-L.

A1 - Towns,R.

A1 - Wiley,J.W.

A1 - Chen,Y.-J.

A1 - Chen,Z.

A1 - Cheng,A.

A1 - Cheng,C.H.K.

A1 - Cheng,Y.

A1 - Wang,H.-G.

A1 - Yang,J.-M.

A1 - El-Deiry,W.S.

A1 - Cheong,H.

A1 - Thompson,C.B.

A1 - Cheong,J.-H.

A1 - Cherry,S.

A1 - Chess-Williams,R.

A1 - Cheung,Z.H.

A1 - Chevet,E.

A1 - Chiang,H.-L.

A1 - Chiba,T.

A1 - Chin,L.-S.

A1 - Li,L.

A1 - Mao,Z.

A1 - Chiou,S.-H.

A1 - Cho,C.H.

A1 - Cho,D.-H.

A1 - Choi,A.M.K.

A1 - Haspel,J.A.

A1 - Henske,E.P.

A1 - Nakahira,K.

A1 - Ryter,S.W.

A1 - Choi,D.

A1 - Choi,K.S.

A1 - Choi,M.E.

A1 - Münger,K.

A1 - Chouaib,S.

A1 - Choubey,D.

A1 - Choubey,V.

A1 - Kaasik,A.

A1 - Chu,C.T.

A1 - Rabinowich,H.

A1 - Chuang,T.-H.

A1 - Chueh,S.-H.

A1 - Chun,T.

A1 - Park,O.K.

A1 - Chwae,Y.-J.

A1 - Chye,M.-L.

A1 - Ciarcia,R.

A1 - Florio,S.

A1 - Granato,G.E.

A1 - Clague,M.J.

A1 - Clark,R.S.B.

A1 - Clarke,P.G.H.

A1 - Puyal,J.

A1 - Clarke,R.

A1 - Saha,T.

A1 - Codogno,P.

A1 - Coller,H.A.

A1 - Colombo,M.I.

A1 - Comincini,S.

A1 - Condorelli,F.

A1 - Cookson,M.R.

A1 - Coppens,I.

A1 - Corbalan,R.

A1 - Cossart,P.

A1 - Costelli,P.

A1 - Costes,S.

A1 - Coto-Montes,A.

A1 - Couve,E.

A1 - Coxon,F.P.

A1 - Helfrich,M.H.

A1 - Hocking,L.J.

A1 - Cregg,J.M.

A1 - Crespo,J.L.

A1 - Cronjé,M.J.

A1 - Cuervo,A.M.

A1 - Kaushik,S.

A1 - Koga,H.

A1 - Czaja,M.J.

A1 - Cullen,J.J.

A1 - D'Amelio,M.

A1 - Darfeuille-Michaud,A.

A1 - Davids,L.M.

A1 - Davies,F.E.

A1 - De Felici,M.

A1 - De Groot,J.F.

A1 - Fueyo,J.

A1 - Gomez-Manzano,C.

A1 - Jiang,H.

A1 - De Haan,C.A.M.

A1 - Monastyrska,I.

A1 - De Martino,L.

A1 - Fiorito,F.

A1 - Iovane,V.

A1 - Pagnini,U.

A1 - De Milito,A.

A1 - Joseph,B.

A1 - Panaretakis,T.

A1 - De Tata,V.

A1 - Debnath,J.

A1 - Degterev,A.

A1 - Dehay,B.

A1 - Delbridge,L.M.D.

A1 - Demarchi,F.

A1 - Schneider,C.

A1 - Deng,Y.Z.

A1 - Naqvi,N.I.

A1 - Dengjel,J.

A1 - Dent,P.

A1 - Denton,D.

A1 - Kumar,S.

A1 - Deretic,V.

A1 - Desai,S.D.

A1 - Devenish,R.J.

A1 - Mijaljica,D.

A1 - Prescott,M.

A1 - Ramm,G.

A1 - Di Gioacchino,M.

A1 - Di Paolo,G.

A1 - Duff,K.

A1 - Yu,W.H.

A1 - Przedborski,S.

A1 - Yamamoto,A.

A1 - Di Pietro,C.

A1 - Marazziti,D.

A1 - Matteoni,R.

A1 - Tocchini-Valentini,G.

A1 - Díaz-Araya,G.

A1 - Díaz-Laviada,I.

A1 - Diaz-Meco,M.T.

A1 - Fotedar,R.

A1 - Hansen,M.

A1 - Moscat,J.

A1 - Reed,J.C.

A1 - Salvesen,G.

A1 - Yang,Z.

A1 - Diaz-Nido,J.

A1 - Izquierdo,M.

A1 - Dinesh-Kumar,S.P.

A1 - Ding,W.-X.

A1 - Distelhorst,C.W.

A1 - Subauste,C.S.

A1 - Wang,X.

A1 - Zhu,X.

A1 - Oleinick,N.L.

A1 - Diwan,A.

A1 - Djavaheri-Mergny,M.

A1 - Dokudovskaya,S.

A1 - Dong,Z.

A1 - Willbold,D.

A1 - Dorsey,F.C.

A1 - Dosenko,V.

A1 - Doxsey,S.

A1 - Dreux,M.

A1 - Duan,Q.

A1 - Duchosal,M.A.

A1 - Dugail,I.

A1 - Kroemer,G.

A1 - Maiuri,M.C.

A1 - Duszenko,M.

A1 - Edelstein,C.L.

A1 - Edinger,A.L.

A1 - Egea,G.

A1 - Eichinger,L.

A1 - Noegel,A.A.

A1 - Eissa,N.T.

A1 - Lin,W.-C.

A1 - Ekmekcioglu,S.

A1 - Elazar,Z.

A1 - Elgendy,M.

A1 - Minucci,S.

A1 - Ellerby,L.M.

A1 - Er Eng,K.

A1 - McInerney,G.M.

A1 - Engelbrecht,A.-M.

A1 - Loos,B.

A1 - Engelender,S.

A1 - Erenpreisa,J.

A1 - Eskelinen,E.-L.

A1 - Espina,V.

A1 - Fan,H.

A1 - Fan,J.

A1 - Fan,Q.-W.

A1 - Ilkhanizadeh,S.

A1 - Weiss,W.A.

A1 - Fang,S.

A1 - Monteiro,M.J.

A1 - Fang,Y.

A1 - Fanto,M.

A1 - Farkas,T.

A1 - Jäättelä,M.

A1 - Farré,J.-C.

A1 - Nazarko,T.Y.

A1 - Faure,M.

A1 - Fechheimer,M.

A1 - Furukawa,R.H.

A1 - Feng,C.G.

A1 - Feng,J.

A1 - Feng,Q.

A1 - Feng,Y.

A1 - Fésüs,L.

A1 - Feuer,R.

A1 - Figueiredo-Pereira,M.E.

A1 - Fimia,G.M.

A1 - Fingar,D.C.

A1 - Finkbeiner,S.

A1 - Finkel,T.

A1 - Finley,K.D.

A1 - Gottlieb,R.A.

A1 - Fisher,E.A.

A1 - Fisher,P.B.

A1 - Flajolet,M.

A1 - Tian,Y.

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A1 - Fon,E.A.

A1 - Fornai,F.

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A1 - Franco,R.

A1 - Frankel,L.B.

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A1 - Fransen,M.

A1 - Fuentes,J.M.

A1 - González-Polo,R.A.

A1 - Fujii,J.

A1 - Fujisaki,K.

A1 - Umemiya-Shirafuji,R.

A1 - Fujita,E.

A1 - Fukuda,M.

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A1 - Menon,M.B.

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A1 - Gao,J.

A1 - Garcia,L.

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A1 - Garcia-Manero,G.

A1 - Garcia-Marcos,M.

A1 - Garmyn,M.

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A1 - Gatti,E.

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A1 - Gawriluk,T.R.

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A1 - Rucker III,E.B.

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A1 - Geng,J.

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A1 - Lukacs,N.W.

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A1 - Kirshenbaum,L.A.

A1 - Yeganeh,B.

A1 - Ghosh,P.

A1 - Lee,J.

A1 - Giammarioli,A.M.

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A1 - Gonzalez,R.

A1 - González-Estévez,C.

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A1 - Gorski,S.

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A1 - Gozuacik,D.

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A1 - Guan,K.-L.

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A1 - Gukovsky,I.

A1 - Gunst,J.

A1 - Van Den Berghe,G.

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A1 - Harris,J.

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A1 - Hashimoto,M.

A1 - Hayashi,S.-I.

A1 - Hazelhurst,L.A.

A1 - He,C.

A1 - Levine,B.

A1 - Terada,A.S.

A1 - He,Y.-W.

A1 - Rathmell,J.C.

A1 - Taylor,G.A.

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A1 - Heidenreich,K.A.

A1 - Helgason,G.V.

A1 - Holyoake,T.L.

A1 - Herman,B.

A1 - Reiter,R.J.

A1 - Herman,P.K.

A1 - Hetz,C.

A1 - Hilfiker,S.

A1 - Navarro,M.

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A1 - Hung,T.-H.

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A1 - Janji,B.

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A1 - Jeon,J.-H.

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A1 - Ma,Y.

A1 - Wang,D.

A1 - Jiang,J.X.

A1 - Jiang,M.

A1 - Jiang,Q.

A1 - Jiang,X.

A1 - Overholtzer,M.

A1 - Jiménez,A.

A1 - Revuelta,J.L.

A1 - Jin,S.

A1 - Joe,C.O.

A1 - Lee,G.M.

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A1 - Lamark,T.

A1 - Johnson,D.E.

A1 - Jones,N.L.

A1 - Joseph,S.K.

A1 - Joubert,A.M.

A1 - Juhász,G.

A1 - Kovács,A.L.

A1 - László,L.

A1 - Lõw,P.

A1 - Sass,M.

A1 - Juillerat-Jeanneret,L.

A1 - Jung,C.H.

A1 - Jung,Y.-K.

A1 - Kaarniranta,K.

A1 - Kabuta,T.

A1 - Wada,K.

A1 - Kadowaki,M.

A1 - Kagedal,K.

A1 - Kamada,Y.

A1 - Kaminskyy,V.O.

A1 - Zhivotovsky,B.

A1 - Kanamori,H.

A1 - Takemura,G.

A1 - Kang,C.

A1 - Kang,K.B.

A1 - Il Kang,K.

A1 - Kang,R.

A1 - Lotze,M.T.

A1 - Tang,D.

A1 - Kanki,T.

A1 - Kanneganti,T.-D.

A1 - Kanno,H.

A1 - Karantza,V.

A1 - Kaushal,G.P.

A1 - Kawazoe,Y.

A1 - Kehrl,J.H.

A1 - Kelekar,A.

A1 - Kerkhoff,C.

A1 - Kessel,D.H.

A1 - Khalil,H.

A1 - Kiel,J.A.K.W.

A1 - Van Der Klei,I.J.

A1 - Kiger,A.A.

A1 - Kihara,A.

A1 - Obara,K.

A1 - Kim,D.R.

A1 - Kim,D.-H.

A1 - Yoon,S.-Y.

A1 - Kim,E.-K.

A1 - Yu,S.-W.

A1 - Kim,H.-R.

A1 - Kim,J.-S.

A1 - Kim,J.H.

A1 - Kim,J.C.

A1 - Meisler,M.H.

A1 - McQuibban,G.A.

A1 - Kim,S.W.

A1 - Kim,Y.-S.

A1 - Koh,Y.H.

A1 - Kim,Y.

A1 - Marten,M.R.

A1 - Kimchi,A.

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PY - 2012

Y1 - 2012

N2 - In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field. © 2012 Landes Bioscience.

AB - In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field. © 2012 Landes Bioscience.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?partnerID=yv4JPVwI&eid=2-s2.0-84862295360&md5=bc297d7dad6af210d1197e61a166d611

U2 - 10.4161/auto.19496

DO - 10.4161/auto.19496

M1 - Article

JO - Autophagy

JF - Autophagy

SN - 1554-8627

IS - 4

VL - 8

SP - 445

EP - 544

ER -

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