Implementing the Water Framework and Groundwater Directives in Finland: lessons from the GENESIS project
Research output: Contribution to journal › Article
|Journal||Journal of Water Law|
|Journal publication date||2011|
This article, the second in a series of two presenting the results of the GENESIS project, critically evaluates the extent to which Finland has transposed the EU Water Framework and Groundwater Directives. The Rokua eskers were chosen as the study area for the project, and the evaluation presented here makes reference to the particular problems encountered in this area, specifically with respect to the management of forestry. The article examines the frameworks that control water abstraction, diffuse pollution, jointly manage ground and surface water, and protect groundwater dependent ecosystems. It finds that Finland has had problems implementing the environmental objectives of the Water Framework Directive (WFD), partly because of transposing legislation but also because of a lack of official monitoring and an impact-driven abstraction regime. This may be exacerbated by reliance on user self-monitoring, driven by the financial realities of monitoring such a large country, and a lack of integration of forest and water management.