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Strategies to improve recruitment to randomised controlled trials

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Strategies to improve recruitment to randomised controlled trials. / Treweek, Shaun (Lead / Corresponding author); Pitkethly, Marie; Cook, Jonathan; Kjeldstrom, Monica; Taskila, Taina; Johansen, Marit; Sullivan, Frank; Wilson, Sue; Jackson, Catherine; Jones, Ritu; Mitchell, Elizabeth.

In: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Vol. 2011, No. 10, MR000013, 2011, p. -.

Research output: Contribution to journalScientific review

Harvard

Treweek, S, Pitkethly, M, Cook, J, Kjeldstrom, M, Taskila, T, Johansen, M, Sullivan, F, Wilson, S, Jackson, C, Jones, R & Mitchell, E 2011, 'Strategies to improve recruitment to randomised controlled trials' Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol 2011, no. 10, MR000013, pp. -.

APA

Treweek, S., Pitkethly, M., Cook, J., Kjeldstrom, M., Taskila, T., Johansen, M., Sullivan, F., Wilson, S., Jackson, C., Jones, R., & Mitchell, E. (2011). Strategies to improve recruitment to randomised controlled trials. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2011(10), -[MR000013]doi: 10.1002/14651858.MR000013.pub5

Vancouver

Treweek S, Pitkethly M, Cook J, Kjeldstrom M, Taskila T, Johansen M et al. Strategies to improve recruitment to randomised controlled trials. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2011;2011(10):-. MR000013.

Author

Treweek, Shaun (Lead / Corresponding author); Pitkethly, Marie; Cook, Jonathan; Kjeldstrom, Monica; Taskila, Taina; Johansen, Marit; Sullivan, Frank; Wilson, Sue; Jackson, Catherine; Jones, Ritu; Mitchell, Elizabeth / Strategies to improve recruitment to randomised controlled trials.

In: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Vol. 2011, No. 10, MR000013, 2011, p. -.

Research output: Contribution to journalScientific review

Bibtex - Download

@article{d173fead98f143d98f7e9f53f51819ef,
title = "Strategies to improve recruitment to randomised controlled trials",
author = "Shaun Treweek and Marie Pitkethly and Jonathan Cook and Monica Kjeldstrom and Taina Taskila and Marit Johansen and Frank Sullivan and Sue Wilson and Catherine Jackson and Ritu Jones and Elizabeth Mitchell",
year = "2011",
volume = "2011",
number = "10",
pages = "--",
journal = "Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews",
issn = "1469-493X",

}

RIS (suitable for import to EndNote) - Download

TY - JOUR

T1 - Strategies to improve recruitment to randomised controlled trials

A1 - Treweek,Shaun

A1 - Pitkethly,Marie

A1 - Cook,Jonathan

A1 - Kjeldstrom,Monica

A1 - Taskila,Taina

A1 - Johansen,Marit

A1 - Sullivan,Frank

A1 - Wilson,Sue

A1 - Jackson,Catherine

A1 - Jones,Ritu

A1 - Mitchell,Elizabeth

AU - Treweek,Shaun

AU - Pitkethly,Marie

AU - Cook,Jonathan

AU - Kjeldstrom,Monica

AU - Taskila,Taina

AU - Johansen,Marit

AU - Sullivan,Frank

AU - Wilson,Sue

AU - Jackson,Catherine

AU - Jones,Ritu

AU - Mitchell,Elizabeth

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - <p>Background</p> <p>Recruiting participants to trials can be extremely difficult. Identifying strategies that improve trial recruitment would benefit both trialists and health research.</p> <p>Objectives</p> <p>To quantify the effects of strategies to improve recruitment of participants to randomised controlled trials.</p> <p>Search strategy</p> <p>We searched the Cochrane Methodology Review Group Specialised Register - CMR (The Cochrane Library (online) Issue 1 2008) (searched 20 February 2008); MEDLINE, Ovid (1950 to date of search) (searched 06 May 2008); EMBASE, Ovid (1980 to date of search) (searched 16 May 2008); ERIC, CSA (1966 to date of search) (searched 19 March 2008); Science Citation Index Expanded, ISI Web of Science (1975 to date of search) (searched 19 March 2008); Social Sciences Citation Index, ISI Web of Science (1975 to date of search) (searched 19 March 2008); and National Research Register (online) (Issue 3 2007) (searched 03 September 2007); C2-SPECTR (searched 09 April 2008). We also searched PubMed (25 March 2008) to retrieve "related articles" for 15 studies included in a previous version of this review.</p> <p>Selection criteria</p> <p>Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of methods to increase recruitment to randomised controlled trials. This includes non-healthcare studies and studies recruiting to hypothetical trials. Studies aiming to increase response rates to questionnaires or trial retention, or which evaluated incentives and disincentives for clinicians to recruit patients were excluded.</p> <p>Data collection and analysis</p> <p>Data were extracted on the method evaluated; country in which the study was carried out; nature of the population; nature of the study setting; nature of the study to be recruited into; randomisation or quasi-randomisation method; and numbers and proportions in each intervention group. We used risk ratios and their 95% confidence intervals to describe the effects in individual trials, and assessed heterogeneity of these ratios between trials.</p> <p>Main results</p> <p>We identified 27 eligible trials with more than 26,604 participants. There were 24 studies involving interventions aimed directly at trial participants, while three evaluated interventions aimed at people recruiting participants. All studies were in health care.</p> <p>Some interventions were effective in increasing recruitment: telephone reminders to non-respondents (RR 2.66, 95% CI 1.37 to 5.18), use of opt-out, rather than opt-in, procedures for contacting potential trial participants (RR 1.39, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.84) and open designs where participants know which treatment they are receiving in the trial (RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.34). However, some of these strategies have disadvantages, which may limit their widespread use. For example, opt-out procedures are controversial and open designs are by definition unblinded. The effects of many other recruitment strategies are unclear; examples include the use of video to provide trial information to potential participants and modifying the training of recruiters. Many studies looked at recruitment to hypothetical trials and it is unclear how applicable these results are to real trials.</p> <p>Authors' conclusions</p> <p>Trialists can increase recruitment to their trials by using the strategies shown to be effective in this review: telephone reminders; use of opt-out, rather than opt-in; procedures for contacting potential trial participants and open designs. Some strategies (e. g. open trial designs) need to be considered carefully before use because they also have disadvantages. For example, opt-out procedures are controversial and open designs are by definition unblinded.<br/> <strong>This review is published as a Cochrane Review in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 10. Cochrane Reviews are regularly updated as new evidence emerges and in response to comments and criticisms, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews should be consulted for the most recent version of the Review.</strong></p>

AB - <p>Background</p> <p>Recruiting participants to trials can be extremely difficult. Identifying strategies that improve trial recruitment would benefit both trialists and health research.</p> <p>Objectives</p> <p>To quantify the effects of strategies to improve recruitment of participants to randomised controlled trials.</p> <p>Search strategy</p> <p>We searched the Cochrane Methodology Review Group Specialised Register - CMR (The Cochrane Library (online) Issue 1 2008) (searched 20 February 2008); MEDLINE, Ovid (1950 to date of search) (searched 06 May 2008); EMBASE, Ovid (1980 to date of search) (searched 16 May 2008); ERIC, CSA (1966 to date of search) (searched 19 March 2008); Science Citation Index Expanded, ISI Web of Science (1975 to date of search) (searched 19 March 2008); Social Sciences Citation Index, ISI Web of Science (1975 to date of search) (searched 19 March 2008); and National Research Register (online) (Issue 3 2007) (searched 03 September 2007); C2-SPECTR (searched 09 April 2008). We also searched PubMed (25 March 2008) to retrieve "related articles" for 15 studies included in a previous version of this review.</p> <p>Selection criteria</p> <p>Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of methods to increase recruitment to randomised controlled trials. This includes non-healthcare studies and studies recruiting to hypothetical trials. Studies aiming to increase response rates to questionnaires or trial retention, or which evaluated incentives and disincentives for clinicians to recruit patients were excluded.</p> <p>Data collection and analysis</p> <p>Data were extracted on the method evaluated; country in which the study was carried out; nature of the population; nature of the study setting; nature of the study to be recruited into; randomisation or quasi-randomisation method; and numbers and proportions in each intervention group. We used risk ratios and their 95% confidence intervals to describe the effects in individual trials, and assessed heterogeneity of these ratios between trials.</p> <p>Main results</p> <p>We identified 27 eligible trials with more than 26,604 participants. There were 24 studies involving interventions aimed directly at trial participants, while three evaluated interventions aimed at people recruiting participants. All studies were in health care.</p> <p>Some interventions were effective in increasing recruitment: telephone reminders to non-respondents (RR 2.66, 95% CI 1.37 to 5.18), use of opt-out, rather than opt-in, procedures for contacting potential trial participants (RR 1.39, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.84) and open designs where participants know which treatment they are receiving in the trial (RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.34). However, some of these strategies have disadvantages, which may limit their widespread use. For example, opt-out procedures are controversial and open designs are by definition unblinded. The effects of many other recruitment strategies are unclear; examples include the use of video to provide trial information to potential participants and modifying the training of recruiters. Many studies looked at recruitment to hypothetical trials and it is unclear how applicable these results are to real trials.</p> <p>Authors' conclusions</p> <p>Trialists can increase recruitment to their trials by using the strategies shown to be effective in this review: telephone reminders; use of opt-out, rather than opt-in; procedures for contacting potential trial participants and open designs. Some strategies (e. g. open trial designs) need to be considered carefully before use because they also have disadvantages. For example, opt-out procedures are controversial and open designs are by definition unblinded.<br/> <strong>This review is published as a Cochrane Review in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 10. Cochrane Reviews are regularly updated as new evidence emerges and in response to comments and criticisms, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews should be consulted for the most recent version of the Review.</strong></p>

KW - Clinical Trials as Topic

KW - Patient Selection

KW - Patient Education as Topic

KW - Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic

KW - Sample Size

KW - Humans

KW - INFORMED-CONSENT PROCESS

KW - CLINICAL-TRIALS

KW - CANCER-PATIENTS

KW - PATIENT RECRUITMENT

KW - HAZARDOUS DRINKING

KW - PREVENTION TRIAL

KW - INJURED PATIENTS

KW - MEDICAL-RESEARCH

KW - DECISION-MAKING

KW - BREAST-CANCER

U2 - 10.1002/14651858.MR000013.pub5

DO - 10.1002/14651858.MR000013.pub5

M1 - Scientific review

JO - Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

JF - Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

SN - 1469-493X

IS - 10

VL - 2011

SP - -

ER -

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