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Cytochrome P450s (CYP) play a pivotal role in the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics, and have been intensively Studied over many years. Much of the work carried out on the role of hepatic cytochrome P450s in drug metabolism and disposition has been done in vitro, and has yielded vital information on P450 regulation and function. However, additional factors such as route of administration, absorption, drug transporters, renal clearance and extra-hepatic P450s, make it difficult to extrapolate from in vitro data to in vivo pharmacokinetics.
A number of cytochrome P450s knockout mice have been generated, although many have. been of limited usefulness due to either embryonic/perinatal lethality, or the functional redundancy inevitably found in a large family of isoenzymes. We have developed a mouse line (HRN) in which cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR), the unique electron donor to cytochrome P450s is deleted specifically in the liver, resulting in the loss of essentially all hepatic P450 function. The HRN mouse, although having disturbances in lipid and bile acid homeostasis develops and breeds normally. We have used the HRN mouse as a model to establish the role of hepatic versus extra-hepatic metabolism in drug metabolism and disposition, and also to investigate the relationship between drug toxicokinetics and therapeutic effect, initially with the chemotherapeutic prodrug cyclophosphamide (CPA). (c) 2005 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.