160 glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) across the Tropical Andes since the Little Ice Age

Adam Emmer (Lead / Corresponding author), Joanne L. Wood, Simon J. Cook, Stephan Harrison, Ryan Wilson, Alejandro Diaz-Moreno, John M. Reynolds, Juan C. Torres, Christian Yarleque, Martin Mergili, Harrinson W. Jara, Georgie Bennett, Adriana Caballero, Neil F. Glasser, Enver Melgarejo, Christian Riveros, Sarah Shannon, Efrain Turpo, Tito Tinoco, Lucas TorresDavid Garay, Hilbert Villafane, Henrry Garrido, Carlos Martinez, Nebenka Apaza, Julia Araujo, Carlos Poma

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    13 Citations (Scopus)
    218 Downloads (Pure)


    Assessing the extent to which glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) are increasing in frequency in modern times and whether their incidence is driven by anthropogenic climate change requires historical context. However, progress on this issue is hampered by incomplete GLOF inventories, especially in remote mountain regions. Here, we exploit high-resolution, multi-temporal satellite and aerial imagery, and documentary data to identify GLOF events across the glacierized Cordilleras of Peru and Bolivia, using a set of diagnostic geomorphic features. A total of 160 GLOFs from 151 individual sites are characterised and analysed, tripling the number of previously reported events. We provide statistics on location, magnitude, timing and characteristics of these events with implications for regional GLOF hazard identification and assessment. Furthermore, we describe several cases in detail and document a wide range of process chains associated with Andean GLOFs.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number103722
    Number of pages14
    JournalGlobal and Planetary Change
    Early online date18 Dec 2021
    Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022


    • Andes
    • Bolivia
    • Glacial lake outburst floods
    • GLOF
    • Peru

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Global and Planetary Change
    • Oceanography


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