175 GHz, 400-fs-pulse harmonically mode-locked surface emitting semiconductor laser

Keith G. Wilcox, Adrian H. Quarterman, Vasilis Apostolopoulos, Harvey E. Beere, Ian Farrer, David A. Ritchie, Anne C. Tropper

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Citations (Scopus)


We report a harmonically mode-locked vertical external cavity surface emitting laser (VECSEL) producing 400 fs pulses at a repetition frequency of 175 GHz with an average output power of 300 mW. Harmonic mode-locking was established using a 300 μm thick intracavity single crystal diamond heat spreader in thermal contact with the front surface of the gain sample using liquid capillary bonding. The repetition frequency was set by the diamond microcavity and stable harmonic mode locking was achieved when the laser cavity length was tuned so that the laser operated on the 117th harmonic of the fundamental cavity. When an etalon placed intracavity next to the gain sample, but not in thermal contact was used pulse groups were observed. These contained 300 fs pulses with a spacing of 5.9 ps. We conclude that to achieve stable harmonic mode locking at repetition frequencies in the 100s of GHz range in a VECSEL there is a threshold pulse energy above which harmonic mode locking is achieved and below which groups of pulses are observed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7040-7045
Number of pages6
JournalOptics Express
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 26 Mar 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics


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