2018 International Consensus Statement on Golf and Health to guide action by people, policymakers and the golf industry

Andrew D. Murray (Lead / Corresponding author), Daryll Archibald, Iain Robert Murray, Roger A. Hawkes, Charlie Foster, Kevin Barker, Paul Kelly, Liz Grant, Nanette Mutrie

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)
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Scientific and public interest relating to golf and health has increased recently. Players, potential players, the golf industry and facilities, and decision makers will benefit from a better understanding of how to realise potential health benefits and minimise health issues related to golf. We outline an International Consensus on Golf and Health. A systematic literature review informed the development of a survey. Utilising modified Delphi methods, an expert panel of 25 persons including public health and golf industry leaders, took part in serial surveys providing feedback on suggested items, and proposing new items. Predefined criteria for agreement determined whether each item was included within each survey round and in the final consensus. The working group identified 79 scientifically supportable statement items from literature review and discussions. Twenty-five experts (100%) completed all three rounds of surveys, rating each item, and suggesting modifications and/ or new items for inclusion in subsequent surveys. After three rounds, 83 items achieved consensus with each with >75% agreement and <10% disagreement. These items are included in the final International Consensus on Golf and Health. The final consensus presented here can inform scientific knowledge, and action plans for (1) golfers and potential golfers, (2) golf facilities and the golf industry, and (3) policy and decision makers external to golf. These outputs, if widely adopted, will contribute to an improved understanding of golf and health, and aid these groups in making evidence-informed decisions to improve health and well-being.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1426-1436
Number of pages11
JournalBritish Journal of Sports Medicine
Issue number22
Early online date23 Sep 2018
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2018


  • consensus
  • golf
  • physical activity
  • public health
  • sport

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