A brain-permeable inhibitor of the neurodegenerative disease target kynurenine 3-monooxygenase prevents accumulation of neurotoxic metabolites

Shaowei Zhang, Michiyo Sakuma, Girdhar S Deora, Colin W Levy, Alex Klausing, Carlo Breda, Kevin D Read, Chris D Edlin, Benjamin P Ross, Marina Wright Muelas, Philip J Day, Stephen O'Hagan, Douglas B Kell, Robert Schwarcz, David Leys, Derren J Heyes, Flaviano Giorgini (Lead / Corresponding author), Nigel S Scrutton (Lead / Corresponding author)

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Abstract

Dysregulation of the kynurenine pathway (KP) leads to imbalances in neuroactive metabolites associated with the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington's disease (HD). Inhibition of the enzyme kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) in the KP normalises these metabolic imbalances and ameliorates neurodegeneration and related phenotypes in several neurodegenerative disease models. KMO is thus a promising candidate drug target for these disorders, but known inhibitors are not brain permeable. Here, 19 new KMO inhibitors have been identified. One of these (1) is neuroprotective in a Drosophila HD model but is minimally brain penetrant in mice. The prodrug variant (1b) crosses the blood-brain barrier, releases 1 in the brain, thereby lowering levels of 3-hydroxykynurenine, a toxic KP metabolite linked to neurodegeneration. Prodrug 1b will advance development of targeted therapies against multiple neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases in which KP likely plays a role, including HD, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease.

Original languageEnglish
Article number271
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalCommunications Biology
Volume2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 24 Jul 2019

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Kynurenine 3-Monooxygenase
Kynurenine
Neurodegenerative Diseases
Huntington Disease
Prodrugs
Brain
Poisons
Metabolic Networks and Pathways
Blood-Brain Barrier
Drosophila
Parkinson Disease
Alzheimer Disease
Phenotype
Enzymes
Pharmaceutical Preparations

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Zhang, Shaowei ; Sakuma, Michiyo ; Deora, Girdhar S ; Levy, Colin W ; Klausing, Alex ; Breda, Carlo ; Read, Kevin D ; Edlin, Chris D ; Ross, Benjamin P ; Wright Muelas, Marina ; Day, Philip J ; O'Hagan, Stephen ; Kell, Douglas B ; Schwarcz, Robert ; Leys, David ; Heyes, Derren J ; Giorgini, Flaviano ; Scrutton, Nigel S. / A brain-permeable inhibitor of the neurodegenerative disease target kynurenine 3-monooxygenase prevents accumulation of neurotoxic metabolites. In: Communications Biology. 2019 ; Vol. 2. pp. 1-10.
@article{7f8a20704f4e47109e0deb52a26ecece,
title = "A brain-permeable inhibitor of the neurodegenerative disease target kynurenine 3-monooxygenase prevents accumulation of neurotoxic metabolites",
abstract = "Dysregulation of the kynurenine pathway (KP) leads to imbalances in neuroactive metabolites associated with the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington's disease (HD). Inhibition of the enzyme kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) in the KP normalises these metabolic imbalances and ameliorates neurodegeneration and related phenotypes in several neurodegenerative disease models. KMO is thus a promising candidate drug target for these disorders, but known inhibitors are not brain permeable. Here, 19 new KMO inhibitors have been identified. One of these (1) is neuroprotective in a Drosophila HD model but is minimally brain penetrant in mice. The prodrug variant (1b) crosses the blood-brain barrier, releases 1 in the brain, thereby lowering levels of 3-hydroxykynurenine, a toxic KP metabolite linked to neurodegeneration. Prodrug 1b will advance development of targeted therapies against multiple neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases in which KP likely plays a role, including HD, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease.",
author = "Shaowei Zhang and Michiyo Sakuma and Deora, {Girdhar S} and Levy, {Colin W} and Alex Klausing and Carlo Breda and Read, {Kevin D} and Edlin, {Chris D} and Ross, {Benjamin P} and {Wright Muelas}, Marina and Day, {Philip J} and Stephen O'Hagan and Kell, {Douglas B} and Robert Schwarcz and David Leys and Heyes, {Derren J} and Flaviano Giorgini and Scrutton, {Nigel S}",
note = "The work was funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BB/P009042/1, BB/R000093/1 and BB/M017702/1 to N.S.S.), the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (fellowship to N.S.S.; EP/J020192/1), the Medical Research Council (MR/N00373X/1, F.G.), the Proof of Concept scheme from the University of Leicester (F.G., N.S.S.), Leicester Drug Discovery and Diagnostics (LD3) small grant award (F.G., N.S.S.) and NIMH grant P50 MH103222 (R.S.). We thank Gillian P. Bates (University College, London), Robert P. Mason (University of Leicester) and Ruth C. Barber (LD3) for experimental support, and acknowledge Biofocus DPI (Charles River Laboratories) and WuXi AppTec for contract research services provided. We thank Diamond Light Source for access to beamlines i03 & i04 (proposal numbers MX8997-35, MX12788-8, 19, 42 & 62) that contributed to the results presented here.",
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Zhang, S, Sakuma, M, Deora, GS, Levy, CW, Klausing, A, Breda, C, Read, KD, Edlin, CD, Ross, BP, Wright Muelas, M, Day, PJ, O'Hagan, S, Kell, DB, Schwarcz, R, Leys, D, Heyes, DJ, Giorgini, F & Scrutton, NS 2019, 'A brain-permeable inhibitor of the neurodegenerative disease target kynurenine 3-monooxygenase prevents accumulation of neurotoxic metabolites', Communications Biology, vol. 2, 271, pp. 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-019-0520-5

A brain-permeable inhibitor of the neurodegenerative disease target kynurenine 3-monooxygenase prevents accumulation of neurotoxic metabolites. / Zhang, Shaowei; Sakuma, Michiyo; Deora, Girdhar S; Levy, Colin W; Klausing, Alex; Breda, Carlo; Read, Kevin D; Edlin, Chris D; Ross, Benjamin P; Wright Muelas, Marina; Day, Philip J; O'Hagan, Stephen; Kell, Douglas B; Schwarcz, Robert; Leys, David; Heyes, Derren J; Giorgini, Flaviano (Lead / Corresponding author); Scrutton, Nigel S (Lead / Corresponding author).

In: Communications Biology, Vol. 2, 271, 24.07.2019, p. 1-10.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - A brain-permeable inhibitor of the neurodegenerative disease target kynurenine 3-monooxygenase prevents accumulation of neurotoxic metabolites

AU - Zhang, Shaowei

AU - Sakuma, Michiyo

AU - Deora, Girdhar S

AU - Levy, Colin W

AU - Klausing, Alex

AU - Breda, Carlo

AU - Read, Kevin D

AU - Edlin, Chris D

AU - Ross, Benjamin P

AU - Wright Muelas, Marina

AU - Day, Philip J

AU - O'Hagan, Stephen

AU - Kell, Douglas B

AU - Schwarcz, Robert

AU - Leys, David

AU - Heyes, Derren J

AU - Giorgini, Flaviano

AU - Scrutton, Nigel S

N1 - The work was funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BB/P009042/1, BB/R000093/1 and BB/M017702/1 to N.S.S.), the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (fellowship to N.S.S.; EP/J020192/1), the Medical Research Council (MR/N00373X/1, F.G.), the Proof of Concept scheme from the University of Leicester (F.G., N.S.S.), Leicester Drug Discovery and Diagnostics (LD3) small grant award (F.G., N.S.S.) and NIMH grant P50 MH103222 (R.S.). We thank Gillian P. Bates (University College, London), Robert P. Mason (University of Leicester) and Ruth C. Barber (LD3) for experimental support, and acknowledge Biofocus DPI (Charles River Laboratories) and WuXi AppTec for contract research services provided. We thank Diamond Light Source for access to beamlines i03 & i04 (proposal numbers MX8997-35, MX12788-8, 19, 42 & 62) that contributed to the results presented here.

PY - 2019/7/24

Y1 - 2019/7/24

N2 - Dysregulation of the kynurenine pathway (KP) leads to imbalances in neuroactive metabolites associated with the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington's disease (HD). Inhibition of the enzyme kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) in the KP normalises these metabolic imbalances and ameliorates neurodegeneration and related phenotypes in several neurodegenerative disease models. KMO is thus a promising candidate drug target for these disorders, but known inhibitors are not brain permeable. Here, 19 new KMO inhibitors have been identified. One of these (1) is neuroprotective in a Drosophila HD model but is minimally brain penetrant in mice. The prodrug variant (1b) crosses the blood-brain barrier, releases 1 in the brain, thereby lowering levels of 3-hydroxykynurenine, a toxic KP metabolite linked to neurodegeneration. Prodrug 1b will advance development of targeted therapies against multiple neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases in which KP likely plays a role, including HD, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease.

AB - Dysregulation of the kynurenine pathway (KP) leads to imbalances in neuroactive metabolites associated with the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington's disease (HD). Inhibition of the enzyme kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) in the KP normalises these metabolic imbalances and ameliorates neurodegeneration and related phenotypes in several neurodegenerative disease models. KMO is thus a promising candidate drug target for these disorders, but known inhibitors are not brain permeable. Here, 19 new KMO inhibitors have been identified. One of these (1) is neuroprotective in a Drosophila HD model but is minimally brain penetrant in mice. The prodrug variant (1b) crosses the blood-brain barrier, releases 1 in the brain, thereby lowering levels of 3-hydroxykynurenine, a toxic KP metabolite linked to neurodegeneration. Prodrug 1b will advance development of targeted therapies against multiple neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases in which KP likely plays a role, including HD, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease.

U2 - 10.1038/s42003-019-0520-5

DO - 10.1038/s42003-019-0520-5

M3 - Article

VL - 2

SP - 1

EP - 10

JO - Communications Biology

JF - Communications Biology

SN - 2399-3642

M1 - 271

ER -