A cyclic GMP-dependent signalling pathway regulates bacterial phytopathogenesis

Shi-Qi An, Ko-Hsin Chin, Melanie Febrer, Yvonne McCarthy, Jauo-Guey Yang, Chung-Liang Liu, David Swarbreck, Jane Rogers, J. Maxwell Dow, Shan-Ho Chou (Lead / Corresponding author), Robert P Ryan (Lead / Corresponding author)

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    41 Citations (Scopus)


    Cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic GMP) is a second messenger whose role in bacterial signalling is poorly understood. A genetic screen in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris (Xcc) identified that XC_0250, which encodes a protein with a class III nucleotidyl cyclase domain, is required for cyclic GMP synthesis. Purified XC_0250 was active in cyclic GMP synthesis in vitro. The linked gene XC_0249 encodes a protein with a cyclic mononucleotide-binding (cNMP) domain and a GGDEF diguanylate cyclase domain. The activity of XC_0249 in cyclic di-GMP synthesis was enhanced by addition of cyclic GMP. The isolated cNMP domain of XC_0249 bound cyclic GMP and a structure-function analysis, directed by determination of the crystal structure of the holo-complex, demonstrated the site of cyclic GMP binding that modulates cyclic di-GMP synthesis. Mutation of either XC_0250 or XC_0249 led to a reduced virulence to plants and reduced biofilm formation in vitro. These findings describe a regulatory pathway in which cyclic GMP regulates virulence and biofilm formation through interaction with a novel effector that directly links cyclic GMP and cyclic di-GMP signalling.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)2430-2438
    JournalEMBO Journal
    Issue number18
    Publication statusPublished - 11 Sept 2013


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