Background: Training a skilled healthcare workforce is an essential part in reaching the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal to end preventable deaths in children and neonates. The greatest burden of mortality lies in low and lower-middle income countries (LLMIC). Short term, in-service courses have been implemented in many LLMIC to improve the quality of care delivered, but the evaluation methods of these courses are inconsistent.
Method: Studies describing evaluations of course and outcome measures were included if the course lasted seven days or less with postgraduate participants, included paediatric or neonatal acute or emergency training and was based in a LLMIC. This narrative review provides a detailed description of evaluation methods of course content, delivery and outcome measures based on 'Context, Input, Process and Product' (CIPP) and Kirkpatrick models.
Results: 5265 titles were screened with 93 articles included after full-text review and quality assessment. Evaluation methods are described: context, input, process, participant satisfaction, change in learning, behaviour, health system infrastructure and patient outcomes.
Conclusions: Outcomes, including mortality and morbidity, are rightly considered the fundamental aim of acute-care courses in LLMIC. Course evaluation can be difficult, especially with low resources, but this review outlines what can be done to guide future course organisers in providing well-conducted courses with consistent outcome measures for maximum sustainable impact.