Background: Health coaching (HC) is based on 'partnering with clients in a thought-provoking and creative process that inspires them to maximise their personal and professional potential' to adopt healthy lifestyles through 'building awareness and empowerment'. This study's objective is to assess, for the first time to our knowledge, the effectiveness of HC compared with health education (HE) using clinical and subjective measures among type 2 diabetes (DM2) patients in Turkey and Denmark.
Methods: This stratified random prospective study selected type 2 diabetes patients in Turkey (n = 186) (TR) (2010-2012) and in Denmark (n = 116) (DK) (2012-2014). Participants were assigned to HC or HE groups. Selected outcomes were HbA1c, periodontal treatment need index (CPI), health behaviours and anthropometric measures. The study duration was 12 months (6 months initiation-maintenance, 6 months follow-up).
Results: At baseline, there were no statistically significant differences between the HC and HE groups. Post-intervention, a reduction of HbA1c in the HC groups was observed (TR: 0.8%; DK: 0.4%, P < 0.01) but not in the HE groups. The HC patients had a higher reduction in CPI than the HE group (P < 0.01). Principal component analysis showed that HbA1c, CPI and 'behaviour change' compose one cluster in the HCTR and HETR groups. Three clusters were formed for the HCDK; respectively HbA1c and CPI, lean mass and body fat percentage, 'behaviour change'.
Conclusions: The results indicate that HC has a greater impact on DM management and health outcomes. There is a need for common health promotion strategies with behavioural interventions such as health coaching for the management of type 2 diabetes that focus on multidisciplinary approaches including oral health.
- diabetes type 2
- Health coaching
- health education
- oral health