Laboratory experiments are described on the flow past a solid obstacle in a rotating, homogeneous fluid. Specifically, the obstacle has the form of a walled crater specially constructed so that the volume of the depression is identically equal to the volume of the walls. The results show that closed streamlines occur rather more easily above such topography than above other obstacle types of the same scale but that the conditions for closure are determined essentially by the detailed geometry of the crater, the value of the Rossby number, and the depth of the fluid. The observed flow patterns are analysed and classified and attempts to quantify the most common flow type are made.
Davies, P. A., Acheson, D. J., & Titman, C. W. (1975). A note on the geostrophic flow past a crater in a rotating fluid. Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, 7(1), 119-131. https://doi.org/10.1080/03091927508242615