A novel Xenopus Smad-interacting forkhead transcription factor (XFast-3) cooperates with XFast-1 in regulating gastrulation movements

Michael Howell, Gareth J. Inman, Caroline S. Hill

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    33 Citations (Scopus)


    In early Xenopus embryos, the prototypical XFast-1/Smad2/Smad4 complex ARF1 is induced at the Mix.2 ARE by activin overexpression. We have characterised ARF2, a related, but much more abundant, complex formed during gastrulation in response to endogenous TGFbeta family members and we have identified a novel Fast family member, XFast-3, as its transcription factor component. Endogenous ARF2 efficiently competes out ARF1 at early gastrulation, due to the ability of XFast-3 to interact with activated Smads with much higher affinity than XFast-1. We demonstrate that ARF1 and ARF2 are activated by distinct TGFbeta family members. Using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides to deplete levels of the constituent transcription factors XFast-1 and XFast-3 specifically, we demonstrate an important role for ARF1 and ARF2 in early Xenopus embryos in controlling the convergent extension movements of gastrulation.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)2823-2834
    Number of pages12
    Issue number12
    Publication statusPublished - 2002


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