A Perspective on CRN Proteins in the Genomics Age

Evolution, Classification, Delivery and Function Revisited

Tiago M. M. M. Amaro, Gaetan J. A. Thilliez, Graham B. Motion, Edgar Huitema (Lead / Corresponding author)

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

12 Citations (Scopus)
78 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Plant associated microbes rely on secreted virulence factors (effectors) to modulate host immunity and ensure progressive infection. Amongst the secreted protein repertoires defined and studied in pathogens to date, the CRNs (for CRinkling and Necrosis) have emerged as one of only a few highly conserved protein families, spread across several kingdoms. CRN proteins were first identified in plant pathogenic oomycetes where they were found to be modular factors that are secreted and translocated inside host cells by means of a conserved N-terminal domain. Subsequent localization and functional studies have led to the view that CRN C-termini execute their presumed effector function in the host nucleus, targeting processes required for immunity. These findings have led to great interest in this large protein family and driven the identification of additional CRN like proteins in other organisms. The identification of CRN proteins and subsequent functional studies have markedly increased the number of candidate CRN protein sequences, expanded the range of phenotypes tentatively associated with function and revealed some of their molecular functions towards virulence. The increased number of characterised CRNs also has presented a set of challenges that may impede significant progress in the future. Here, we summarise our current understanding of the CRNs and re-assess some basic assumptions regarding this protein family. We will discuss the latest findings on CRN biology and highlight exciting new hypotheses that have emanated from the field. Finally, we will discuss new approaches to study CRN functions that would lead to a better understanding of CRN effector biology as well as the processes that lead to host susceptibility and immunity.
Original languageEnglish
Article number99
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalFrontiers in Plant Science
Volume8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 3 Feb 2017

Fingerprint

taxonomy
genomics
proteins
immunity
virulence
Biological Sciences
Oomycetes
necrosis
amino acid sequences
microorganisms
phenotype
pathogens
organisms
infection
cells

Keywords

  • Oomycetes
  • Phytophthora
  • Effectors
  • CRN
  • nucleus
  • Immunity
  • CR-Toxins

Cite this

Amaro, Tiago M. M. M. ; Thilliez, Gaetan J. A. ; Motion, Graham B. ; Huitema, Edgar. / A Perspective on CRN Proteins in the Genomics Age : Evolution, Classification, Delivery and Function Revisited. In: Frontiers in Plant Science. 2017 ; Vol. 8. pp. 1-12.
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abstract = "Plant associated microbes rely on secreted virulence factors (effectors) to modulate host immunity and ensure progressive infection. Amongst the secreted protein repertoires defined and studied in pathogens to date, the CRNs (for CRinkling and Necrosis) have emerged as one of only a few highly conserved protein families, spread across several kingdoms. CRN proteins were first identified in plant pathogenic oomycetes where they were found to be modular factors that are secreted and translocated inside host cells by means of a conserved N-terminal domain. Subsequent localization and functional studies have led to the view that CRN C-termini execute their presumed effector function in the host nucleus, targeting processes required for immunity. These findings have led to great interest in this large protein family and driven the identification of additional CRN like proteins in other organisms. The identification of CRN proteins and subsequent functional studies have markedly increased the number of candidate CRN protein sequences, expanded the range of phenotypes tentatively associated with function and revealed some of their molecular functions towards virulence. The increased number of characterised CRNs also has presented a set of challenges that may impede significant progress in the future. Here, we summarise our current understanding of the CRNs and re-assess some basic assumptions regarding this protein family. We will discuss the latest findings on CRN biology and highlight exciting new hypotheses that have emanated from the field. Finally, we will discuss new approaches to study CRN functions that would lead to a better understanding of CRN effector biology as well as the processes that lead to host susceptibility and immunity.",
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A Perspective on CRN Proteins in the Genomics Age : Evolution, Classification, Delivery and Function Revisited. / Amaro, Tiago M. M. M.; Thilliez, Gaetan J. A.; Motion, Graham B.; Huitema, Edgar (Lead / Corresponding author).

In: Frontiers in Plant Science, Vol. 8, 99, 03.02.2017, p. 1-12.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

TY - JOUR

T1 - A Perspective on CRN Proteins in the Genomics Age

T2 - Evolution, Classification, Delivery and Function Revisited

AU - Amaro, Tiago M. M. M.

AU - Thilliez, Gaetan J. A.

AU - Motion, Graham B.

AU - Huitema, Edgar

N1 - This work was funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and the European Research Council (ERC, 310901 RETRaIN).

PY - 2017/2/3

Y1 - 2017/2/3

N2 - Plant associated microbes rely on secreted virulence factors (effectors) to modulate host immunity and ensure progressive infection. Amongst the secreted protein repertoires defined and studied in pathogens to date, the CRNs (for CRinkling and Necrosis) have emerged as one of only a few highly conserved protein families, spread across several kingdoms. CRN proteins were first identified in plant pathogenic oomycetes where they were found to be modular factors that are secreted and translocated inside host cells by means of a conserved N-terminal domain. Subsequent localization and functional studies have led to the view that CRN C-termini execute their presumed effector function in the host nucleus, targeting processes required for immunity. These findings have led to great interest in this large protein family and driven the identification of additional CRN like proteins in other organisms. The identification of CRN proteins and subsequent functional studies have markedly increased the number of candidate CRN protein sequences, expanded the range of phenotypes tentatively associated with function and revealed some of their molecular functions towards virulence. The increased number of characterised CRNs also has presented a set of challenges that may impede significant progress in the future. Here, we summarise our current understanding of the CRNs and re-assess some basic assumptions regarding this protein family. We will discuss the latest findings on CRN biology and highlight exciting new hypotheses that have emanated from the field. Finally, we will discuss new approaches to study CRN functions that would lead to a better understanding of CRN effector biology as well as the processes that lead to host susceptibility and immunity.

AB - Plant associated microbes rely on secreted virulence factors (effectors) to modulate host immunity and ensure progressive infection. Amongst the secreted protein repertoires defined and studied in pathogens to date, the CRNs (for CRinkling and Necrosis) have emerged as one of only a few highly conserved protein families, spread across several kingdoms. CRN proteins were first identified in plant pathogenic oomycetes where they were found to be modular factors that are secreted and translocated inside host cells by means of a conserved N-terminal domain. Subsequent localization and functional studies have led to the view that CRN C-termini execute their presumed effector function in the host nucleus, targeting processes required for immunity. These findings have led to great interest in this large protein family and driven the identification of additional CRN like proteins in other organisms. The identification of CRN proteins and subsequent functional studies have markedly increased the number of candidate CRN protein sequences, expanded the range of phenotypes tentatively associated with function and revealed some of their molecular functions towards virulence. The increased number of characterised CRNs also has presented a set of challenges that may impede significant progress in the future. Here, we summarise our current understanding of the CRNs and re-assess some basic assumptions regarding this protein family. We will discuss the latest findings on CRN biology and highlight exciting new hypotheses that have emanated from the field. Finally, we will discuss new approaches to study CRN functions that would lead to a better understanding of CRN effector biology as well as the processes that lead to host susceptibility and immunity.

KW - Oomycetes

KW - Phytophthora

KW - Effectors

KW - CRN

KW - nucleus

KW - Immunity

KW - CR-Toxins

U2 - 10.3389/fpls.2017.00099

DO - 10.3389/fpls.2017.00099

M3 - Review article

VL - 8

SP - 1

EP - 12

JO - Frontiers in Plant Science

JF - Frontiers in Plant Science

SN - 1664-462X

M1 - 99

ER -