There is a limited understanding of how genetic loci associated with glycemic traits and type 2 diabetes (T2D) influence the response to antidiabetic medications. Polygenic scores provide increasing power to detect patterns of disease pre-disposition that might benefit from a targeted pharmacologic intervention. In the Study to Understand the Genetics of the Acute Response to Metformin and Glipizide in Humans (SUGAR-MGH), we constructed weighted polygenic scores using known genome-wide significant associations for T2D, fasting glucose, and fasting insulin, comprising 65, 43, and 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms, respectively. Multiple linear regression tested for associations between scores and glycemic traits as well as pharmacodynamic end points, adjusting for age, sex, race, and BMI. A higher T2D score was nominally associated with a shorter time to insulin peak, greater glucose area over the curve, shorter time to glucose trough, and steeper slope to glucose trough after glipizide. In replication, a higher T2D score was associated with a greater 1-year hemoglobin A 1c reduction to sulfonylureas in the Genetics of Diabetes Audit and Research in Tayside Scotland (GoDARTS) study (P = 0.02). Our findings suggest that individuals with a higher genetic burden for T2D experience a greater acute and sustained response to sulfonylureas.