The aims of this study were to review the diagnostic pathway of women with smears reported as 'glandular neoplasia' and to outline the management, colposcopy findings, treatment and final histological diagnosis in these women. The design was a retrospective review. A total of 114 women were identified over a 5-year period from the cytology database at the Royal Liverpool University Hospital Cytology Department, whose hospital case notes were available for review. Methods included a review of the case notes for the demographic details, indication for smear, colposcopic findings, investigation and/or treatment procedures, histology, final diagnosis and current disease status. Of 114 smears reported as 'glandular neoplasia', 67 were reported as consistent with cervical glandular intra-epithelial neoplasia (CGIN), six with endocervical adenocarcinoma, 36 with endometrial adenocarcinoma and five with other glandular neoplastic abnormalities. The average age was 46.5 years. 79 (69.3%) smears were routine call/recall and 36 (30.7%) women were symptomatic. The positive predictive value (PPV) for a significant histological abnormality in the CGIN smear group was 80.6% (23.9% invasive carcinomas, 43.3% CGIN and 13.4% CIN) and the PPV of an 'endometrial adenocarcinoma' smear was 86.1%. Smears indicating glandular neoplasia are associated with a high probability of clinically significant lesions, the PPV of a CGIN smear being over 80%. Immediate referral for colposcopy and assessment by an experienced colposcopist is recommended.