A review of current challenges and prospects of magnesium and its alloy for bone implant applications

Meysam Nasr Azadani, Abolfazl Zahedi, Oluwole Kingsley Bowoto, Bankole Ibrahim Oladapo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

60 Citations (Scopus)


Medical application materials must meet multiple requirements, and the designed implant must mimic the bone structure in shape and support the formation of bone tissue (osteogenesis). Magnesium (Mg) alloys, as a “smart” biodegradable material and as “the green engineering material in the twenty-first century”, have become an outstanding bone implant material due to their natural degradability, smart biocompatibility, and desirable mechanical properties. Magnesium is recognised as the next generation of orthopaedic appliances and bioresorbable scaffolds. At the same time, improving the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys is an urgent challenge to promote the application of magnesium alloys. Nevertheless, the excessively quick deterioration rate generally results in premature mechanical integrity disintegration and local hydrogen build-up, resulting in restricted clinical bone restoration applicability. The condition of Mg bone implants is thoroughly examined in this study. The relevant approaches to boost the corrosion resistance, including purification, alloying treatment, surface coating, and Mg-based metal matrix composite, are comprehensively revealed. These characteristics are reviewed to assess the progress of contemporary Mg-based biocomposites and alloys for biomedical applications. The fabricating techniques for Mg bone implants also are thoroughly investigated. Notably, laser-based additive manufacturing fabricates customised forms and complicated porous structures based on its distinctive additive manufacturing conception. Because of its high laser energy density and strong controllability, it is capable of fast heating and cooling, allowing it to modify the microstructure and performance. This review paper aims to provide more insight on the present challenges and continued research on Mg bone implants, highlighting some of the most important characteristics, challenges, and strategies for improving Mg bone implants.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-26
Number of pages26
JournalProgress in Biomaterials
Early online date3 Mar 2022
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022


  • Additive manufacturing
  • Biocompatibility
  • Biomaterials
  • Degradability
  • Magnesium alloy
  • Mechanical properties

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)


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