We show here that cytochalasin D-induced depolymerization of actin filaments markedly reduces the stimulus-dependent activation of protein kinase B (PKB) in four different cell types (HEK-293 cells, L6 myotubes, 3T3-L1 adipocytes and U87MG cells). HEK-293 cells expressing the pleckstrin homology (PH) domains of PKB and general receptor for phosphoinositides-1 (GRP1) fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) were used to monitor production of 3-phosphoinositides in the plasma membrane. Disassembly of the actin cytoskeleton significantly reduced the insulin-mediated translocation of both PKB-PH-GFP and GRP1-PH-GFP to the plasma membrane, consistent with diminished synthesis of 3-phosphoinositides. Actin depolymerization did not affect the hormonal activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), and since cytochalasin D treatment also led to reduced platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced phosphorylation of PKB in U87MG cells, a PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) null cell line, lipid phosphatase activity was unlikely to account for any reduction in cellular 3-phosphoinositides. Withdrawal of cytochalasin D from the extracellular medium induced actin filament repolymerization, and reinstated both the recruitment of PH-GFP fusion proteins to the plasma membrane and PKB activation in response to insulin and PDGF. Our findings indicate that an intact actin network is a crucial requirement for PI 3-kinase-mediated production of 3-phosphoinositides and, therefore, for the activation of PKB.
- Glycogen synthase kinase-3
- Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10
- Phosphoinositide 3-kinase
- Platelet-derived growth factor