Research Design and Methods: We examined the relationship between T1DGRS, GADA (negative or positive) and rapid insulin requirement (within 5 years) using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression in 8,608 participants with clinical type 2 diabetes (onset >35 years, treated without insulin for ≥6 months). T1DGRS was analyzed both continuously (as standardized scores) and categorized based on previously reported centiles of a type 1 diabetes population (<5th (low), 5th-50th (medium), >50th (high)).
Results: In GADA positive participants (3.3%), those with higher T1DGRS progressed to insulin more quickly: Probability of insulin requirement at five years [95% CI]: 47.9%[35.0%,62.78%] (high T1DGRS) vs 27.6%[20.5%,36.5%] (medium T1DGRS) vs 17.6%[11.2%,27.2%] (low T1DGRS), p=0.001. In contrast T1DGRS did not predict rapid insulin requirement in GADA negative participants (p=0.4). In Cox regression analysis with adjustment for age of diagnosis, BMI and cohort, T1DGRS was independently associated with time to insulin only in the presence of GADA: hazard ratio per SD increase 1.48 (1.15,1.90), p=0.002.
Conclusions: A Type 1 Diabetes Genetic Risk Score alters the clinical implications of a positive GADA test in patients with clinical type 2 diabetes, and is independent of and additive to clinical features.