Ability of matrix metalloproteinase-8 biosensor, IFMA, and ELISA immunoassays to differentiate between periodontal health, gingivitis, and periodontitis

Kehinde Adesola Umeizudike (Lead / Corresponding author), Hanna Lähteenmäki, Ismo T. Räisänen, John J. Taylor, Philip M. Preshaw, Susan M. Bissett, Taina Tervahartiala, Solomon O. Nwhator, Pirjo Pärnänen, Timo Sorsa

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Abstract

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic utility of an MMP-8 biosensor assay in differentiating periodontal health from gingivitis and periodontitis and compare it with an established time-resolved immunofluorescence assay (IFMA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Background: Currently available antibody-based assays display a wide variability in their ability to accurately measure matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) levels in saliva.

Methods: Salivary MMP-8 levels were analyzed in 189 systemically healthy participants using an antibody-based biosensor prototype that operates using a surface acoustic wave technology and compared with IFMA and ELISA antibody assays. Participants were categorized into 3 groups: periodontal health (59), gingivitis (63), and periodontitis (67). A sub-population of participants (n = 20) with periodontitis received periodontal treatment and were monitored for 6 months.

Results: All the assays demonstrated significantly higher salivary MMP-8 concentrations in participants with periodontitis versus gingivitis, periodontitis versus health, and gingivitis versus health (all p <.05). The biosensor data demonstrated significant correlations with IFMA (r =.354, p <.001) and ELISA (r =.681, p <.001). Significant reductions in salivary MMP-8 concentrations were detected by the biosensor (p =.030) and IFMA (p =.002) in participants with periodontitis 6 months after non-surgical periodontal treatment. IFMA had the best sensitivity (89.2%) for detecting periodontitis and gingivitis versus health and 96.6% for detecting periodontitis versus health and gingivitis. The biosensor had an AUC value of 0.81 and diagnostic accuracy of 74.2% for differentiating periodontitis and gingivitis from health; an AUC value of 0.86 and diagnostic accuracy of 82.8% for periodontitis versus health and gingivitis.

Conclusions: The biosensor, IFMA, and ELISA assays differentiated between periodontal health, gingivitis, and periodontitis based on salivary MMP-8 levels. Only the biosensor and, particularly, IFMA identified an effect of periodontal treatment in the participants with periodontitis. Our findings support the potential utility of salivary oral fluid aMMP-8-based point-of-care technology in the future of periodontal diagnostics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)558-567
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Periodontal Research
Volume57
Issue number3
Early online date19 Mar 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022

Keywords

  • active/total matrix metalloproteinase-8; saliva
  • biosensor
  • periodontal disease

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