Abnormal Reward Valuation and Event-Related Connectivity in Unmedicated Major Depressive Disorder

Samuel Rupprechter, Aistis Stankevicius, Quentin J. M. Huys, Peggy Seriès, Douglas Steele (Lead / Corresponding author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Experience of emotion is closely linked to valuation. Mood can be viewed as a bias to experience positive or negative emotions and abnormally biased subjective reward valuation and cognitions are core characteristics of major depression.

Methods: Thirty-four unmedicated subjects with major depressive disorder and controls estimated the probability that fractal stimuli were associated with reward, based on passive observations, so they could subsequently choose the higher of either their estimated fractal value or an explicitly presented reward probability. Using model-based functional magnetic resonance imaging, we estimated each subject's internal value estimation, with psychophysiological interaction analysis used to examine event-related connectivity, testing hypotheses of abnormal reward valuation and cingulate connectivity in depression.

Results: Reward value encoding in the hippocampus and rostral anterior cingulate was abnormal in depression. In addition, abnormal decision-making in depression was associated with increased anterior mid-cingulate activity and a signal in this region encoded the difference between the values of the two options. This localised decision-making and its impairment to the anterior mid-cingulate cortex (aMCC) consistent with theories of cognitive control. Notably, subjects with depression had significantly decreased event-related connectivity between the aMCC and rostral cingulate regions during decision-making, implying impaired communication between the neural substrates of expected value estimation and decision-making in depression.

Conclusions: Our findings support the theory that abnormal neural reward valuation plays a central role in major depressive disorder (MDD). To the extent that emotion reflects valuation, abnormal valuation could explain abnormal emotional experience in MDD, reflect a core pathophysiological process and be a target of treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages9
JournalPsychological Medicine
Early online date7 Jan 2020
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 7 Jan 2020

Fingerprint

Major Depressive Disorder
Reward
Gyrus Cinguli
Depression
Decision Making
Fractals
Emotions
Cognition
Hippocampus
Communication
Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Keywords

  • major depressive disorder
  • unmedicated
  • decision-making
  • neural valuation
  • event-related connectivity
  • Decision-making

Cite this

Rupprechter, Samuel ; Stankevicius, Aistis ; Huys, Quentin J. M. ; Seriès, Peggy ; Steele, Douglas. / Abnormal Reward Valuation and Event-Related Connectivity in Unmedicated Major Depressive Disorder. In: Psychological Medicine. 2020.
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Abnormal Reward Valuation and Event-Related Connectivity in Unmedicated Major Depressive Disorder. / Rupprechter, Samuel ; Stankevicius, Aistis ; Huys, Quentin J. M. ; Seriès, Peggy; Steele, Douglas (Lead / Corresponding author).

In: Psychological Medicine, 07.01.2020.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Stankevicius, Aistis

AU - Huys, Quentin J. M.

AU - Seriès, Peggy

AU - Steele, Douglas

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N2 - Background: Experience of emotion is closely linked to valuation. Mood can be viewed as a bias to experience positive or negative emotions and abnormally biased subjective reward valuation and cognitions are core characteristics of major depression.Methods: Thirty-four unmedicated subjects with major depressive disorder and controls estimated the probability that fractal stimuli were associated with reward, based on passive observations, so they could subsequently choose the higher of either their estimated fractal value or an explicitly presented reward probability. Using model-based functional magnetic resonance imaging, we estimated each subject's internal value estimation, with psychophysiological interaction analysis used to examine event-related connectivity, testing hypotheses of abnormal reward valuation and cingulate connectivity in depression.Results: Reward value encoding in the hippocampus and rostral anterior cingulate was abnormal in depression. In addition, abnormal decision-making in depression was associated with increased anterior mid-cingulate activity and a signal in this region encoded the difference between the values of the two options. This localised decision-making and its impairment to the anterior mid-cingulate cortex (aMCC) consistent with theories of cognitive control. Notably, subjects with depression had significantly decreased event-related connectivity between the aMCC and rostral cingulate regions during decision-making, implying impaired communication between the neural substrates of expected value estimation and decision-making in depression.Conclusions: Our findings support the theory that abnormal neural reward valuation plays a central role in major depressive disorder (MDD). To the extent that emotion reflects valuation, abnormal valuation could explain abnormal emotional experience in MDD, reflect a core pathophysiological process and be a target of treatment.

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