Accuracy of Immunofluorescence in the Diagnosis of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia

Amelia Shoemark (Lead / Corresponding author), Emily Frost, Mellisa Dixon, Sarah Ollosson, Kate Kilpin, Mitali Patel, Juliet Scully, Andrew V. Rogers, Hannah M. Mitchison, Andrew Bush, Claire Hogg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

83 Citations (Scopus)
185 Downloads (Pure)


Rationale The standard approach to diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) in the UK consists of assessing ciliary function by high-speed-microscopy and ultrastructure by election microscopy, but equipment and expertise is not widely available internationally. The identification of bi-allelic disease causing mutations is also diagnostic, but many disease causing genes are unknown, and testing is not widely available outside the USA. Fluorescent antibodies to ciliary proteins are used to validate research genetic studies, but diagnostic utility in this disease has not been systematically evaluated. Objectives Determine utility of a panel of six fluorescent labelled antibodies as a diagnostic tool for PCD. Methods Immunofluorescent labelling of nasal brushings from a discovery cohort of 35 patients diagnosed with PCD by ciliary ultrastructure, and a diagnostic accuracy cohort of 386 patients referred with symptoms suggestive of disease. The results were compared to diagnostic outcome. Measurements and Main Results Immunofluorescence correctly identified mislocalised or absent staining in 100% of the discovery cohort. In the diagnostic cohort immunofluorescence successfully identified 22 of 25 patients with PCD and normal staining in all 252 in whom PCD was considered highly unlikely. Immunofluorescence additionally provided a result in 55% (39) of cases which were previously inconclusive. Immunofluorescence results were available within 14 days, costing $187 per sample compared to electron microscopy (27 days, cost $1452). Conclusions Immunofluorescence is a highly specific diagnostic test for PCD, and improves the speed and availability of diagnostic testing, however, sensitivity is limited and immunofluorescence is not suitable as a stand-alone test.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)94-101
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Issue number1
Early online date15 Feb 2017
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2017


  • Ultrastructure
  • respiratory epithelium


Dive into the research topics of 'Accuracy of Immunofluorescence in the Diagnosis of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this