Adherence to General Diabetes and Foot Care Processes, with Prompt Referral, Are Associated with Amputation-Free Survival in People with Type 2 Diabetes and Foot Ulcers: A Scottish National Registry Analysis

Bernardo Meza-Torres (Lead / Corresponding author), Scott G. Cunningham, Christian Heiss, Mark Joy, Michael Feher, Graham P. Leese, Simon de Lusignan, Fabrizio Carinci

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Abstract

Aims: To compare different packages of care across care providers in Scotland on foot-related outcomes.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study with primary and secondary care electronic health records from the Scottish Diabetes Registry, including 6,845 people with type 2 diabetes and a first foot ulcer occurring between 2013 and 2017. We assessed the association between exposure to care processes and major lower extremity amputation and death. Proportional hazards were used for time-to-event univariate and multivariate analyses, adjusting for case-mix characteristics and care processes. Results were expressed in terms of hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals.

Results: 2,243 (32.7%) subjects had a major amputation or death. Exposure to all nine care processes at all ages (HR = 0:63; 95% CI: 0.58-0.69; p <:001) and higher foot care attendance in people aged >70 years (HR =0:88; 0.78-0.99; p=:03) were associated with longer major amputation-free survival. Waitingtime≥ 12 weeks between ulceration and clinic attendance was associated with worse outcomes (HR =1:59; 1.37-1.84; p< :001). In people > 70 years, minor amputations were associated with improved major amputation-free survival (HR =0:69; 0.52-0.92; p=:01)

Conclusions: Strict adherence to a standardised package of general diabetes care before foot ulceration, timely foot care after ulceration, and specific treatment pathways were associated with longer major amputation-free survival among a large cohort of people with type 2 diabetes in Scotland, with a larger impact on older age groups
Original languageEnglish
Article number7414258
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Diabetes Research
Volume2022
Early online date14 Jun 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Keywords

  • Diabetic foot ulcers
  • Lower extremity amputations
  • Organization of care
  • Primary care
  • Type 2 diabetes

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