Adverse effects of pharmacotherapies for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder - Epidemiology, prevention and management

Johnny Graham, D. Coghill

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

    110 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Medication for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is in widespread use globally. There is considerable data suggesting that overall, the adverse effect burden from this use is dose dependent and is in the mild to moderate category, but few comprehensive reviews exist of the epidemiology of adverse effects alone. This review provides a general and systems-specific summary of the scientific literature regarding adverse effect data for the drugs in general use for the treatment of ADHD.

    Although several areas lack definitive data, current evidence suggests that, for the majority of those treated for ADHD, the medications currently available pose little in the way of risk of significant harm. Epidemiological data suggest a low incidence of serious adverse effects, whilst the less serious adverse effects, such as insomnia and anorexia, are relatively common. Also, some specific areas of study suggest lower risks of harm than previously thought, e.g. tic disorders and seizures. However, pre-existing conditions and other interindividual differences may raise the risk of harmful adverse effects, which adds emphasis to the need for careful pretreatment assessment and monitoring. Potential but unlikely long-term treatment effects need to be investigated as carefully as possible, particularly with regard to cardiac sequelae and carcinogenesis. There are both overlaps and differences between the adverse effects of stimulants and nonstimulants, such as atomoxetine. For example, the latter shares the stimulant group's potential for changing cardiovascular parameters, but may not cause insomnia.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)213-237
    Number of pages25
    JournalCNS Drugs
    Volume22
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - 2008

    Keywords

    • PLACEBO-CONTROLLED EVALUATION
    • DAILY ATOMOXETINE TREATMENT
    • SALTS EXTENDED-RELEASE
    • PROOF-OF-CONCEPT
    • ONCE-A-DAY
    • DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY-DISORDER
    • DOUBLE-BLIND
    • STIMULANT MEDICATION
    • CONTROLLED-TRIAL
    • ORAL METHYLPHENIDATE

    Cite this

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    abstract = "Medication for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is in widespread use globally. There is considerable data suggesting that overall, the adverse effect burden from this use is dose dependent and is in the mild to moderate category, but few comprehensive reviews exist of the epidemiology of adverse effects alone. This review provides a general and systems-specific summary of the scientific literature regarding adverse effect data for the drugs in general use for the treatment of ADHD.Although several areas lack definitive data, current evidence suggests that, for the majority of those treated for ADHD, the medications currently available pose little in the way of risk of significant harm. Epidemiological data suggest a low incidence of serious adverse effects, whilst the less serious adverse effects, such as insomnia and anorexia, are relatively common. Also, some specific areas of study suggest lower risks of harm than previously thought, e.g. tic disorders and seizures. However, pre-existing conditions and other interindividual differences may raise the risk of harmful adverse effects, which adds emphasis to the need for careful pretreatment assessment and monitoring. Potential but unlikely long-term treatment effects need to be investigated as carefully as possible, particularly with regard to cardiac sequelae and carcinogenesis. There are both overlaps and differences between the adverse effects of stimulants and nonstimulants, such as atomoxetine. For example, the latter shares the stimulant group's potential for changing cardiovascular parameters, but may not cause insomnia.",
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    Adverse effects of pharmacotherapies for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder - Epidemiology, prevention and management. / Graham, Johnny; Coghill, D.

    In: CNS Drugs, Vol. 22, No. 3, 2008, p. 213-237.

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Adverse effects of pharmacotherapies for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder - Epidemiology, prevention and management

    AU - Graham, Johnny

    AU - Coghill, D.

    PY - 2008

    Y1 - 2008

    N2 - Medication for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is in widespread use globally. There is considerable data suggesting that overall, the adverse effect burden from this use is dose dependent and is in the mild to moderate category, but few comprehensive reviews exist of the epidemiology of adverse effects alone. This review provides a general and systems-specific summary of the scientific literature regarding adverse effect data for the drugs in general use for the treatment of ADHD.Although several areas lack definitive data, current evidence suggests that, for the majority of those treated for ADHD, the medications currently available pose little in the way of risk of significant harm. Epidemiological data suggest a low incidence of serious adverse effects, whilst the less serious adverse effects, such as insomnia and anorexia, are relatively common. Also, some specific areas of study suggest lower risks of harm than previously thought, e.g. tic disorders and seizures. However, pre-existing conditions and other interindividual differences may raise the risk of harmful adverse effects, which adds emphasis to the need for careful pretreatment assessment and monitoring. Potential but unlikely long-term treatment effects need to be investigated as carefully as possible, particularly with regard to cardiac sequelae and carcinogenesis. There are both overlaps and differences between the adverse effects of stimulants and nonstimulants, such as atomoxetine. For example, the latter shares the stimulant group's potential for changing cardiovascular parameters, but may not cause insomnia.

    AB - Medication for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is in widespread use globally. There is considerable data suggesting that overall, the adverse effect burden from this use is dose dependent and is in the mild to moderate category, but few comprehensive reviews exist of the epidemiology of adverse effects alone. This review provides a general and systems-specific summary of the scientific literature regarding adverse effect data for the drugs in general use for the treatment of ADHD.Although several areas lack definitive data, current evidence suggests that, for the majority of those treated for ADHD, the medications currently available pose little in the way of risk of significant harm. Epidemiological data suggest a low incidence of serious adverse effects, whilst the less serious adverse effects, such as insomnia and anorexia, are relatively common. Also, some specific areas of study suggest lower risks of harm than previously thought, e.g. tic disorders and seizures. However, pre-existing conditions and other interindividual differences may raise the risk of harmful adverse effects, which adds emphasis to the need for careful pretreatment assessment and monitoring. Potential but unlikely long-term treatment effects need to be investigated as carefully as possible, particularly with regard to cardiac sequelae and carcinogenesis. There are both overlaps and differences between the adverse effects of stimulants and nonstimulants, such as atomoxetine. For example, the latter shares the stimulant group's potential for changing cardiovascular parameters, but may not cause insomnia.

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    KW - PROOF-OF-CONCEPT

    KW - ONCE-A-DAY

    KW - DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY-DISORDER

    KW - DOUBLE-BLIND

    KW - STIMULANT MEDICATION

    KW - CONTROLLED-TRIAL

    KW - ORAL METHYLPHENIDATE

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    VL - 22

    SP - 213

    EP - 237

    JO - CNS Drugs

    JF - CNS Drugs

    SN - 1172-7047

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    ER -