Age- and sex-related changes of the volume of maxillary sinuses quantified via cone beam computed tomography

Lucas Eigi Borges Tanaka, Ademir Franco, Rafael Ferreira Abib, Luiz Roberto Coutinho Manhães-Junior, Sergio Lucio Pereira de Castro Lopes

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Anatomical studies found in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) an optimal resource for the three-dimensional (3D) assessment of the head and neck. When it comes to the maxillary sinuses, CBCT enables a life-size reliable volumetric analysis. This study aimed to assess the age and sex-related changes of the maxillary sinuses using volumetric CBCT analysis. The sample consisted of CBCT scans of 112 male (n = 57) and female (n = 55) individuals (224 maxillary sinuses) distributed in 5 age categories: 20 |— 30, 31 |— 40, 41 |— 50, 51 |— 60 and > 60 years. Image acquisition was accomplished with the i-CAT Next Generation device set with voxel size of 0.25 mm and field of view that included the maxillary sinuses (retrospective sample collection from an existing database). Image segmentation was performed in itk-SNAP ( software. The volume (mm3) of the segmented sinuses was quantified and compared pairwise based on side (left and right), sex (male and female) and age (five groups). Differences between left and right sides volume were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The mean volume of maxillary sinuses in males was 22% higher than females (p = 0.0001). Volumetric differences were not statistically significant between age categories for males and females (p > 0.05). The discriminant power of sinuses’ volume may support customized and patient-specific treatment planning based on sex.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere312101422220
Number of pages10
JournalResearch, Society and Development
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 2 Nov 2021


  • Anatomy
  • Cone beam computed tomography
  • Forensic dentistry
  • Maxillary sinus
  • Volume


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