Age estimation using canine pulp volumes in adults: A CBCT image analysis

Shakeel Kazmi (Lead / Corresponding author), Scheila Manica, Simon Shepherd, Mark Hector, Gavin Revie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)
137 Downloads (Pure)


Secondary dentine deposition is responsible for the decrease in the volume of the pulp cavity with age. Therefore, the volume of the pulp cavity can be considered as a predictor for estimating age. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship strength between canine pulp volumes and chronological age from homogenous (approximately equal numbers of individuals in each age range) age distribution and to assess the effect of sex as predictor in age estimation. This study was performed on 719 subjects of Pakistani origin. Cone beam computed tomography images of 521 left maxillary and 681 left mandibular canines were collected from 368 females and 349 males aged from 15 to 65 years. Planmeca Romexis® software was used to trace the outline of the pulp cavity and to calculate pulp volumes. Regression analysis was performed to assess the correlation between pulp volumes considering with and without sex as a predictor with chronological age. The obtained results showed that mandibular canine pulp volume and sex have the highest predictive power (R 2 = 0.33). The relationship between mandibular canine pulp volume and sex with chronological age demonstrates an odd S-shaped non-linear relationship. A statistically significant difference in volumes of pulp was found (p = 0.000) between males and females. The conclusion was that predictions using the pulp volume of the mandibular canine and sex produced the best estimates of chronological age.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1967-1976
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Legal Medicine
Issue number6
Early online date30 Aug 2019
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2019


  • Age estimation
  • Canine pulp volumes
  • Cone beam computed tomography
  • Forensic odontology
  • Homogenous age distribution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine


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