Aging in the relaxor and ferroelectric state of Fe-doped (1-x)(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-xBaTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics

Eva Sapper, Robert Dittmer, Dragan Damjanovic, Emre Erdem, David J. Keeble, Wook Jo, Torsten Granzow, Jürgen Rödel

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    59 Citations (Scopus)


    Aging of piezoelectric properties was investigated in lead-free (1 − x)(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-xBaTiO3 doped with 1at. % Fe. The relaxor character of the un-poled material prevents macroscopic aging effects, while in the field-induced ferroelectric phase aging phenomena are similar to those found in lead zirconate titanate or barium titanate. Most prominent aging effects are the development of an internal bias field and the decrease of switchable polarization. These effects are temperature activated, and can be explained in the framework of defect complex reorientation. This picture is further supported by electron paramagnetic resonance spectra indicating the existence of (FeTi ′−VO ••)• defect complexes in the Fe-doped material
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number104102
    Number of pages12
    JournalJournal of Applied Physics
    Issue number10
    Early online date9 Sept 2014
    Publication statusPublished - 14 Sept 2014


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