Altered metabolic parameters in association with antipsychotic medication use in diabetes: A population based case-control study

D. J. Wake (Lead / Corresponding author), P. Broughton, S. M. Perera, D. J. MacIntyre, G. P. Leese

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)
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Aims: This study assess differences in clinical variables in diabetes patients prescribed antipsychotic medication and determines relative schizophrenia prevalence in the diabetes population. Methods: This population-based case-control study utilizing Scotland's national diabetes registry (SCI-diabetes) and linked psychiatric hospital discharge data (SMR04) established diabetes phenotypes in a patient cohort prescribed long term antipsychotic medication (n = 2362) (cases). Cases were matched 1:10 to diabetes patients not prescribed antipsychotic medication (controls) for BMI, gender; diabetes type; birth year; diagnosis date; smoking status. Sub-groups with defined schizophrenia (n = 196) or bipolar disorder (n = 190) were further examined. Schizophrenia prevalence in the diabetes versus general population was compared. Results: During follow up, antipsychotic prescription was associated with lower HbA1c (55.1 (95% CI 54.5-55.8) or 7.2 (95% CI 7.1-7.3)% vs 58.2 (58.0-58.4) mmol or 7.5 (95% CI 7.5-7.5)% p <0.001) lower serum total cholesterol, 4.2 (4.1-4.2) vs 4.3 (4.2-4.3) mmol/l, p <0.001, lower blood pressure (systolic 130 (130.17-131.29) vs 134 (134.3-134.7) mmHg, p <0.001), higher prescription of oral hypoglycaemic medication (42% (40-45) vs 38% (37-39) p <0.001), similar statin prescriptions (85% (81-89) vs 85% (84-86), p = 0.55), and lower retinopathy rates (28% (25.6-30.5) vs 32% (31.5-33.1), p <0.001). HbA1c at diagnosis was similar (p = 0.27). Schizophrenia prevalence was higher in the diabetes versus general population with differences across age groups (Scottish population versus diabetic population rate of 522.2 (522.1-522.3) versus 717.4 (703.4-731.9) per 100,000). Conclusions: We confirm higher diabetes rates in schizophrenia up to age 70, similar attendance rates and clinical measurements that are not worse in a large well-matched population-based Scottish sample prescribed antipsychotic medication versus matched general diabetes patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)214-220
Number of pages7
Early online date23 Jan 2016
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2016


  • Antipsychotics
  • Case-control
  • Diabetes
  • Mental health
  • Metabolic
  • Schizophrenia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry
  • Endocrine and Autonomic Systems


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