Analysis of the barley bract suppression gene Trd1

Kelly Houston, Arnis Druka, Nicky Bonar, Malcolm Macaulay, Udda Lundqvist, Jerome Franckowiak, Michele Morgante, Nils Stein, Robbie Waugh

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    28 Citations (Scopus)


    A typical barley (Hordeum vulgare) floret consists of reproductive organs three stamens and a pistil, and non-reproductive organs-lodicules and two floral bracts, abaxial called 'lemma' and adaxial 'palea'. The floret is subtended by two additional bracts called outer or empty glumes. Together these organs form the basic structural unit of the grass inflorescence, a spikelet. There are commonly three spikelets at each rachis (floral stem of the barley spike) node, one central and two lateral spikelets. Rare naturally occurring or induced phenotypic variants that contain a third bract subtending the central spikelets have been described in barley. The gene responsible for this phenotype was called the THIRD OUTER GLUME1 (Trd1). The Trd1 mutants fail to suppress bract growth and as a result produce leaf-like structures that subtend each rachis node in the basal portion of the spike. Also, floral development at the collar is not always suppressed. In rice and maize, recessive mutations in NECK LEAF1 (Nl1) and TASSEL SHEATH1 (Tsh1) genes, respectively, have been shown to be responsible for orthologous phenotypes. Fine mapping of the trd1 phenotype in an F3 recombinant population enabled us to position on the long arm of chromosome 1H to a 10 cM region. We anchored this to a conserved syntenic region on rice chromosome Os05 and selected a set of candidate genes for validation by resequencing PCR amplicons from a series of independent mutant alleles. This analysis revealed that a GATA transcription factor, recently proposed to be Trd1, contained mutations in 10 out of 14 independent trd1 mutant alleles that would generate non-functional TRD1 proteins. Together with genetic linkage data, we confirm the identity of Trd1 as the GATA transcription factor ortholog of rice Nl1 and maize Tsh1 genes.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)33-45
    Number of pages13
    JournalTheoretical and Applied Genetics
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - Jun 2012


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