Anchor geotechnics for floating offshore wind: Current technologies and future innovations

Benjamin Cerfontaine (Lead / Corresponding author), David White, Katherine Kwa, Susan M. Gourvenec, Jonathan A. Knappett, Michael J. Brown

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
1045 Downloads (Pure)


A rapid expansion of the anchor market is required to meet the increasing demand for floating offshore wind. This paper, which is aimed at a broad readership within and beyond geotechnical engineering, summarises the current state-of-the-art and discusses future developments of anchor types and geotechnical design methods.

Current anchor technologies are presented via comparative analytical assessments of performance across a range of practical scales and seabed conditions. This analysis demonstrates the relative merits and performance of different anchor types, using simplified cost-performance indicators for each anchor technology. An example outcome is the large differences in anchor efficiency (capacity per unit weight), that are linked to the different ways anchors achieve their holding capacity.

Potential improvements in the performance-cost response for each anchor type, through future enhancements, are then explored. These enhancements are categorised as (1) unlocking higher anchor performance through improved design methods with a better understanding of the geotechnical response, (2) upscaling or (3) commoditising of the anchor type, by making larger versions or enabling more efficient mass production and installation, or (4) invention of new anchor technologies. Finally, findings of the different sections are summarised within a single table to enable a quick selection of anchoring solutions.
Original languageEnglish
Article number114327
Number of pages20
JournalOcean Engineering
Early online date2 May 2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2023


  • Floating offshore wind
  • Anchoring
  • Foundation
  • Innovation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Civil and Structural Engineering


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