Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Auranamide and Patriscabratine-Mechanisms and In Silico Studies

Kit-Kay Mak, Zhang Shiming, Jun Sheng Low, Madhu Katyayani Balijepalli, Raghavendra Sakirolla, Albena T. Dinkova-Kostova, Ola Epemolu, Zulkefeli Mohd, Mallikarjuna Rao Pichika (Lead / Corresponding author)

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    Auranamide and patriscabratine are amides from Melastoma malabathricum (L.) Smith. Their anti-inflammatory activity and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) activation ability were evaluated using Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPSEc)-stimulated murine macrophages (RAW264.7) and murine hepatoma (Hepa-1c1c7) cells, respectively. The cytotoxicity of the compounds was assessed using a 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The anti-inflammatory activity was determined by measuring the nitric oxide (NO) production and pro-inflammatory cytokines (Interleukin (IL)-1β, Interferon (IFN)-γ, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-6) and mediators (NF-κB and COX-2). NRF2 activation was determined by measuring the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen (NADPH) quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), nuclear NRF2 and hemeoxygenase (HO)-1. In vitro metabolic stability was assessed using the mouse, rat, and human liver microsomes. The compounds were non-toxic to the cells at 10 μM. Both compounds showed dose-dependent effects in downregulating NO production and pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators. The compounds also showed upregulation of NQO1 activity and nuclear NRF2 and HO-1 levels. The compounds were metabolically stable in mouse, rat and human liver microsomes. The possible molecular targets of NRF2 activation by these two compounds were predicted using molecular docking studies and it was found that the compounds might inhibit the Kelch domain of KEAP1 and GSK-3β activity. The physicochemical and drug-like properties of the test compounds were predicted using Schrodinger small molecule drug discovery suite (v.2022-2).

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number4992
    Number of pages15
    Issue number15
    Publication statusPublished - 5 Aug 2022


    • auranamide
    • patriscabratine
    • Melastoma malabathricum
    • NRF2
    • KEAP1
    • anti-inflammatory


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