Globally, chronic wounds impose a notable burden to patients and healthcare systems. Such skin wounds are readily subjected to bacteria that provoke inflammation and hence challenge the healing process. Furthermore, bacteria induce infection impeding re-epithelialization and collagen synthesis. With an estimated global market of $20.4 billion by 2021, appropriate wound dressing materials e.g. those composed of biopolymers originating from nature, are capable of alleviating the infection incidence and of accelerating the healing process. Particularly, biopolymeric nanofibrous dressings are biocompatible and mostly biodegradable and biomimic the extracellular matrix structure. Such nanofibrous dressings provide a high surface area and the ability to deliver antibiotics and antibacterial agents locally into the wound milieu to control infection. In this regard, with the dangerous evolution of antibiotic resistant bacteria, antibiotic delivery systems are being gradually replaced with antibacterial biohybrid nanofibrous wound dressings. This emerging class of wound dressings comprises biopolymeric nanofibers containing antibacterial nanoparticles, nature-derived compounds and biofunctional agents. Here, the most recent (since 2015) developments of antibacterial biopolymeric nanofibrous wound dressings, particularly those made of biohybrids, are reviewed and their antibacterial efficiency is evaluated based on a comprehensive literature analysis. Lastly, the prospects and challenges are discussed to draw a roadmap for further progresses and to open up future research avenues in this area. Statement of Significance: With a global market of $20.4 billion by 2021, skin wound dressings are a crucial segment of the wound care industry. As an advanced class of bioactive wound dressing materials, natural polymeric nanofibers loaded with antibacterial agents, e.g. antimicrobial nanoparticles/ions, nature-derived compounds and biofunctional agents, have shown a remarkable potential for replacement of their classic counterparts. Also, given the expanding concern regarding antibiotic resistant bacteria, such biohybrid nanofibrous wound dressings can outperform classical drug delivery systems. Here, an updated overview of the most recent (since 2015) developments of antibacterial biopolymeric nanofibrous wound dressings is presented. In this review, while discussing about the antibacterial efficiency of such systems, the prospects and challenges are highlighted to draw a roadmap for further progresses in this area.
- Antibacterial agent
- Wound dressing