Background and Objective: The aim of this study was to examine whether serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels to Porphyromonas gingivalis and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans are higher in type 1 diabetic patients than in controls and are associated with coronary artery calcification, a measure of atherosclerosis.
Material and Methods: One-hundred and ninety nine type 1 diabetic patients (mean age 38 +/- 4 years) and 201 age- and gender-matched nondiabetic subjects had coronary artery calcification, as measured by electron beam computed tomography. Serum IgG levels to P. gingivalis W50 and to A. actinomycetemcomitans HK1651 whole cells were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results: A similar proportion of diabetic patients (29%) and controls (31%, p = 0.7) had elevated serum IgG to periodontal bacteria, defined as being above the median antibody level for both microorganisms. Elevated antibody levels were associated with higher systolic blood pressure (p = 0.02) and an increased odds of coronary artery calcification in all subjects combined (odds ratio = 1.7, p = 0.047) and in diabetic subjects examined separately (odds ratio = 2.01, p = 0.027). Association of serum IgG levels with coronary artery calcification was independent of social class, lipids and antibody levels to other microorganisms, but not systolic blood pressure (odds ratio = 1.4, p = 0.1 on adjustment for blood pressure). There was no association between serum IgG level and vascular endothelial function.
Conclusion: Elevated levels of serum IgG to P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans are associated with coronary artery atherosclerosis. This may reflect a direct role for periodontal infection or a role for the host response to infection in coronary atherosclerosis, particularly in patients with type 1 diabetes.
- Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans
- Porphyromonas gingivalis
- CHECKERBOARD ASSESSMENTS
- ATHEROSCLEROSIS RISK
- ADULT PERIODONTITIS
- SERUM ANTIBODIES
- DENTAL DISEASE