Mackenzie IS, Coughtrie MWH, MacDonald TM, Wei L. (Medicines Monitoring Unit (MEMO); and Centre for Oncology & Molecular Medicine, Division of Medical Sciences, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital & Medical School; Dundee, UK). Antiplatelet drug interactions (Review-Symposium). J Intern Med 2010; 268: 516-529.
Both laboratory studies in healthy volunteers and clinical studies have suggested adverse interactions between antiplatelet drugs and other commonly used medications. Interactions described include those between aspirin and ibuprofen, aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and the thienopyridine, clopidogrel, and drugs inhibiting CYP2C19, notably the proton pump inhibitors (PPI) omeprazole and esomeprazole. Other interactions between thienopyridines and CYP3A4/5 have also been reported for statins and calcium channel blockers. The ibuprofen/aspirin interaction is thought to be caused by ibuprofen blocking the access of aspirin to platelet cyclo-oxygenase. The thienopyridine interactions are caused by inhibition of microsomal enzymes that metabolize these pro-drugs to their active metabolites. We review the evidence for these interactions, assess their clinical importance and suggest strategies of how to deal with them in clinical practice. We conclude that ibuprofen is likely to interact with aspirin and reduce its anti-platelet action particularly in those patients who take ibuprofen chronically. This interaction is of greater relevance to those patients at high cardiovascular risk. A sensible strategy is to advise users of aspirin to avoid chronic ibuprofen or to ingest aspirin at least 2 h prior to ibuprofen. Clearly the use of NSAIDs that do not interact in this way is preferred. For the clopidogrel CYP2C19 and CYP3A4/5 interactions, there is good evidence that these interactions occur. However, there is less good evidence to support the clinical importance of these interactions. Again, a reasonable strategy is to avoid the chronic use of drugs that inhibit CYP2C19, notably PPIs, in subjects taking clopidogrel and use high dose H2 antagonists instead. Finally, anti-platelet agents probably interact with other drugs that affect platelet function such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and clinicians should probably judge patients taking such combination therapies as at high risk for bleeding.
- antiplatelet therapy
- drug interaction
- NONSTEROIDAL ANTIINFLAMMATORY DRUGS
- LOW-DOSE ASPIRIN
- ACUTE MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION
- RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED-TRIAL
- PROTON-PUMP INHIBITORS
- SEROTONIN REUPTAKE INHIBITORS
- PERCUTANEOUS CORONARY INTERVENTION
- SELECTIVE CYCLOOXYGENASE-2 INHIBITORS
- THERAPEUTIC ARTHRITIS RESEARCH