INTRODUCTION: There is observed increase in detection rate of upper urinary tract urothelial cancer worldwide. This is a result of improved imaging as well as implementation of novel technologies of direct visualization of upper urinary tract. Standard techniques still remain insufficient to diagnose flat urothelial lesions. Carcinoma in situ is characterized by flat disordered proliferation of urothelial cells with marked cytologic abnormality, which occur within one cell layer as well as full thickness urothelium and therefore requires a better technology to pick up early and subtle mucosal changes.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The review presents available diagnostic tools in detection of upper urinary tract urothelial cancer and their ability to depict carcinoma in situ.
RESULTS: Ureterorenoscopy is an investigation of choice as various promising techniques are under pilot investigations to enhance visualization of upper urinary tract carcinoma in situ. So far only photodynamic diagnosis has been reported to be as effective in detection of carcinoma in situ in the upper as within the lower urinary tract.
CONCLUSIONS: Although we are close to see upper urinary tract carcinoma in situ all new promising diagnostic techniques still require further validation in multicenter clinical trials to indicate any change to current recommendations.
- upper urinary tract
- urothelial cancer
- carcinoma in situ