Assessing exposure of consumers to pesticide residues is an area of regulatory science that has rapidly developed over the last decade. From simplistic, deterministic models calculating lifetime exposure for adults only, assessment procedures have diversified so that more realistic estimates of long term exposures for adults, schoolchildren, toddlers and infants and short term exposures for adults and toddlers (who generally bound the more extreme consumer patterns) are now carried out. The final assessment of risk still remains a simplistic numeric comparison against hazard assessment based on a wide range of toxicity studies incorporating the appropriate safety or uncertainty factors. As development of risk assessments continues, the use of probabilistic models is becoming an invaluable information tool for quantitative risk management and aiding assessment of cumulative exposure. This paper examines the recent developments in risk assessment and consumer perception of the risks of pesticide residues, and speculates where the future developments in these areas may lie.