Lactobacillus paracasei K5 is a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strain that has been isolated from dairy products. Previous studies have established its probiotic potential in a series of in vitro tests, including molecular characterization, safety profiling, and tolerability of the gastrointestinal tract conditions. To characterize its beneficial actions on the host, we have shown previously that L. paracasei K5 adheres to Caco-2 cells and exerts anti-proliferative effects through the induction of apoptosis. In the present study, we focused on the immunomodulatory potential of this strain. We employed the dorsal-air-pouch mouse model of inflammation and recorded an eight-fold increase in the recruitment of immune cells in mice treated with the probiotic strain, compared to the control group. Analysis of the exudates revealed significant changes in the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators on site. Treatment of Caco-2 cells with L. paracasei K5 induced significant upregulation of cytokines interleukin-1α (IL-1α), ΙL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), the chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 2 (CXCL2), and the inflammation markers soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM) and metallopeptidase inhibitor-1 (TIMP-1). Transient induction of the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2, 4, 6, and 9 expression levels was recorded by real-time PCR analysis. These results highlight the immunomodulatory potential of this strain and further support its probiotic character.
- Air pouch
- Toll-like receptors