Associations between active travel and diet

cross-sectional evidence on healthy, low-carbon behaviours from UK Biobank

Michaela A. Smith (Lead / Corresponding author), Jan Boehnke, Hilary Graham, Piran C. L. White, Stephanie L. Prady

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    Abstract

    Objectives: To examine whether there are associations between active travel and markers of a healthy, low-carbon (HLC) diet (increased consumption of fruit and vegetables (FV), reduced consumption of red and processed meat (RPM)).

    Design: Cross-sectional analysis of a cohort study.

    Settings: Population cohort of over 500 000 people recruited from 22 centres across the UK. Participants aged between 40 and 69 years were recruited between 2006 and 2010.

    Participants: 412 299 adults with complete data on travel mode use, consumption of FV and RPM, and sociodemographic covariates were included in the analysis.

    Exposure measures: Mutually exclusive mode or mode combinations of travel (car, public transport, walking, cycling) for non-work and commuting journeys.

    Outcome measures: Consumption of FV measured as portions per day and RPM measured as frequency per week.

    Results: Engaging in all types of active travel was positively associated with higher FV consumption and negatively associated with more frequent RPM consumption. Cycling exclusively or in combination with walking was most strongly associated with increased dietary consumption of FV and reduced consumption of RPM for both non-work and commuting journeys. Overall, the strongest associations were between non-work cycling and FV consumption (males: adjusted OR=2.18, 95% CI 2.06 to 2.30; females: adjusted OR=2.50, 95% CI 2.31 to 2.71) and non-work cycling and RPM consumption (males: adjusted OR=0.57, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.60; females: adjusted OR=0.54, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.59). Associations were generally similar for both commuting and non-work travel, and were robust to adjustment with sociodemographic and behavioural factors.

    Conclusions: There are strong associations between engaging in active travel, particularly cycling, and HLC dietary consumption, suggesting that these HLC behaviours are related. Further research is needed to better understand the drivers and dynamics between these behaviours within individuals, and whether they share common underlying causes.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number030741
    Pages (from-to)1-12
    Number of pages12
    JournalBMJ Open
    Volume9
    Issue number8
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 3 Sep 2019

    Fingerprint

    Vegetables
    Fruit
    Carbon
    Diet
    Walking
    Red Meat
    Cohort Studies
    Cross-Sectional Studies
    Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
    Research
    Population

    Keywords

    • active travel
    • diet
    • epidemiology
    • preventive medicine
    • public health

    Cite this

    Smith, Michaela A. ; Boehnke, Jan ; Graham, Hilary ; White, Piran C. L. ; Prady, Stephanie L. / Associations between active travel and diet : cross-sectional evidence on healthy, low-carbon behaviours from UK Biobank. In: BMJ Open. 2019 ; Vol. 9, No. 8. pp. 1-12.
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    abstract = "Objectives: To examine whether there are associations between active travel and markers of a healthy, low-carbon (HLC) diet (increased consumption of fruit and vegetables (FV), reduced consumption of red and processed meat (RPM)).Design: Cross-sectional analysis of a cohort study.Settings: Population cohort of over 500 000 people recruited from 22 centres across the UK. Participants aged between 40 and 69 years were recruited between 2006 and 2010.Participants: 412 299 adults with complete data on travel mode use, consumption of FV and RPM, and sociodemographic covariates were included in the analysis.Exposure measures: Mutually exclusive mode or mode combinations of travel (car, public transport, walking, cycling) for non-work and commuting journeys.Outcome measures: Consumption of FV measured as portions per day and RPM measured as frequency per week.Results: Engaging in all types of active travel was positively associated with higher FV consumption and negatively associated with more frequent RPM consumption. Cycling exclusively or in combination with walking was most strongly associated with increased dietary consumption of FV and reduced consumption of RPM for both non-work and commuting journeys. Overall, the strongest associations were between non-work cycling and FV consumption (males: adjusted OR=2.18, 95{\%} CI 2.06 to 2.30; females: adjusted OR=2.50, 95{\%} CI 2.31 to 2.71) and non-work cycling and RPM consumption (males: adjusted OR=0.57, 95{\%} CI 0.54 to 0.60; females: adjusted OR=0.54, 95{\%} CI 0.50 to 0.59). Associations were generally similar for both commuting and non-work travel, and were robust to adjustment with sociodemographic and behavioural factors.Conclusions: There are strong associations between engaging in active travel, particularly cycling, and HLC dietary consumption, suggesting that these HLC behaviours are related. Further research is needed to better understand the drivers and dynamics between these behaviours within individuals, and whether they share common underlying causes.",
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    Associations between active travel and diet : cross-sectional evidence on healthy, low-carbon behaviours from UK Biobank. / Smith, Michaela A. (Lead / Corresponding author); Boehnke, Jan; Graham, Hilary; White, Piran C. L.; Prady, Stephanie L.

    In: BMJ Open, Vol. 9, No. 8, 030741, 03.09.2019, p. 1-12.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Associations between active travel and diet

    T2 - cross-sectional evidence on healthy, low-carbon behaviours from UK Biobank

    AU - Smith, Michaela A.

    AU - Boehnke, Jan

    AU - Graham, Hilary

    AU - White, Piran C. L.

    AU - Prady, Stephanie L.

    N1 - © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. Re-use permitted under CC BY. Published by BMJ.

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    N2 - Objectives: To examine whether there are associations between active travel and markers of a healthy, low-carbon (HLC) diet (increased consumption of fruit and vegetables (FV), reduced consumption of red and processed meat (RPM)).Design: Cross-sectional analysis of a cohort study.Settings: Population cohort of over 500 000 people recruited from 22 centres across the UK. Participants aged between 40 and 69 years were recruited between 2006 and 2010.Participants: 412 299 adults with complete data on travel mode use, consumption of FV and RPM, and sociodemographic covariates were included in the analysis.Exposure measures: Mutually exclusive mode or mode combinations of travel (car, public transport, walking, cycling) for non-work and commuting journeys.Outcome measures: Consumption of FV measured as portions per day and RPM measured as frequency per week.Results: Engaging in all types of active travel was positively associated with higher FV consumption and negatively associated with more frequent RPM consumption. Cycling exclusively or in combination with walking was most strongly associated with increased dietary consumption of FV and reduced consumption of RPM for both non-work and commuting journeys. Overall, the strongest associations were between non-work cycling and FV consumption (males: adjusted OR=2.18, 95% CI 2.06 to 2.30; females: adjusted OR=2.50, 95% CI 2.31 to 2.71) and non-work cycling and RPM consumption (males: adjusted OR=0.57, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.60; females: adjusted OR=0.54, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.59). Associations were generally similar for both commuting and non-work travel, and were robust to adjustment with sociodemographic and behavioural factors.Conclusions: There are strong associations between engaging in active travel, particularly cycling, and HLC dietary consumption, suggesting that these HLC behaviours are related. Further research is needed to better understand the drivers and dynamics between these behaviours within individuals, and whether they share common underlying causes.

    AB - Objectives: To examine whether there are associations between active travel and markers of a healthy, low-carbon (HLC) diet (increased consumption of fruit and vegetables (FV), reduced consumption of red and processed meat (RPM)).Design: Cross-sectional analysis of a cohort study.Settings: Population cohort of over 500 000 people recruited from 22 centres across the UK. Participants aged between 40 and 69 years were recruited between 2006 and 2010.Participants: 412 299 adults with complete data on travel mode use, consumption of FV and RPM, and sociodemographic covariates were included in the analysis.Exposure measures: Mutually exclusive mode or mode combinations of travel (car, public transport, walking, cycling) for non-work and commuting journeys.Outcome measures: Consumption of FV measured as portions per day and RPM measured as frequency per week.Results: Engaging in all types of active travel was positively associated with higher FV consumption and negatively associated with more frequent RPM consumption. Cycling exclusively or in combination with walking was most strongly associated with increased dietary consumption of FV and reduced consumption of RPM for both non-work and commuting journeys. Overall, the strongest associations were between non-work cycling and FV consumption (males: adjusted OR=2.18, 95% CI 2.06 to 2.30; females: adjusted OR=2.50, 95% CI 2.31 to 2.71) and non-work cycling and RPM consumption (males: adjusted OR=0.57, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.60; females: adjusted OR=0.54, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.59). Associations were generally similar for both commuting and non-work travel, and were robust to adjustment with sociodemographic and behavioural factors.Conclusions: There are strong associations between engaging in active travel, particularly cycling, and HLC dietary consumption, suggesting that these HLC behaviours are related. Further research is needed to better understand the drivers and dynamics between these behaviours within individuals, and whether they share common underlying causes.

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