Asymmetry of the parental craniofacial skeleton in orofacial clefting

G. T. McIntyre (Lead / Corresponding author), P. A. Mossey

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    26 Citations (Scopus)


    Objective: To evaluate size-related and shape-related craniofacial skeletal asymmetries in the parents of children with orofacial clefting (OFC).

    Design: Retrospective PA cephalometric study.

    Setting: Glasgow/Dundee, Scotland. Subjects: Ninety-two parental volunteers from a completely ascertained sample of 286 children born with OFC between 1980–1984 in the West of Scotland.

    Interventions: None. 

    Main outcome measures: A conventional cephalometric asymmetry analysis (CCAA) evaluated size-related right:left asymmetry comprising eight linear distance, nine angular, and three mid-facial area measurements. The right and left landmark configurations were uniformly scaled using Procrustes superimposition and Euclidean Distance Matrix Analysis (EDMA) evaluated shape-related right-left asymmetry 

    Results: The three linear distances, nine angles and two areas differed between the right and left sides of the craniofacial complex (P <0.05) indicate size asymmetry characterized by a wider left side of the face and a shorter vertical dimension on the right side (directional asymmetry). EDMA detected shape asymmetry [T statistic = 2.671 (P = 0.10)]. Forty per cent of the EDMA ratios were clinically importantly larger or smaller on the left and right sides respectively, involving landmarks anatomically and morphogenetically important in OFC. 

    Conclusion: Size and shape directional asymmetries characterize the parental craniofacial skeleton in OFC. This heritable directional craniofacial skeletal asymmetry could be of relevance in the left-sided predilection of OFC.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)299-305
    Number of pages7
    JournalJournal of Orthodontics
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - Dec 2002


    • Asymmetry
    • heritable
    • morphometric
    • postero-anterior-cephalogram

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • General Medicine


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