Bimaxillary Protrusion: Prevalence and Associated Factors in the Trinidad and Tobago Population

Trudee Hoyte (Lead / Corresponding author), Anil Ali, David Bearn

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Introduction: Bimaxillary protrusion is a malocclusion characterized by proclined upper and lower incisors and prognathic jaws which has been identified in different ethnic groups and populations. Trinidad and Tobago have a mixed ethnicity population suitable to assess the prevalence of bimaxillary protrusion and associated factors in different ethnicities.

Method: An epidemiological survey of 972 children, 566 females (58.2%) and 406 males (41.8%) was conducted. The sample population was 11 - 12 year old (mean age 11.84 years) in high schools across the country. None of the subjects were undergoing or had previous orthodontic treatment. Occlusal and anterior posterior relationships were assessed based on BSI 1983 definitions. The two conditions that made up bimaxillary protrusion, bimaxillary prognathism and bimaxillary proclamation, were assessed using extraoral and intraoral parameters respectively.

Results: Bimaxillary prognathism and proclination were found with 64.4% and 68.8% prevalence respectively. Both conditions were found across all ethnic groups but with significantly different prevalence rates. There was an association between oral habits and ethnicity. Class 1 incisor relationship, class 1 canines and average overbite were the most common occlusal relationships found.

Conclusion: Bimaxillary protrusion is prevalent in the population of Trinidad and Tobago. Prevalence of bimaxillary protrusion is related to ethnicity. There is an association between ethnicity and oral habits.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)110-116
Number of pages7
JournalActa Scientific Dental Sciences
Issue number12
Early online date16 Nov 2018
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2018


  • Bimaxillary Protrustion
  • Prevalence
  • Ethnicity
  • Oral Habits
  • Trinidad and Tobago


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