Atherosclerosis is the main cause of arterial thrombosis, causing acute occlusive cardiovascular syndromes. Numerous risk prediction models have been developed, that mathematically combine multiple predictors, to estimate the risk of developing cardiovascular events. Current risk models typically do not include information from biomarkers that can potentially improve these existing prediction models especially if they are pathophysiologically relevant. Numerous cardiovascular disease biomarkers have been investigated that have focused on known pathophysiological pathways including those related to cardiac stress, inflammation, matrix remodelling and endothelial dysfunction. Imaging biomarkers have also been studied that have yielded promising results with a potential higher degree of clinical applicability in detection of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular event prediction. To further improve therapy decision-making and guidance, there is continuing intense research on emerging biologically relevant biomarkers. As the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease is multifactorial, improvements in discrimination and reclassification in risk prediction models will likely involve multiple biomarkers. This article will provide an overview of the literature on potential blood-based and imaging biomarkers of atherosclerosis studied so far, as well as potential future directions.
|Number of pages||12|
|Journal||Cardiology in Review|
|Early online date||31 Jan 2022|
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - 31 Jan 2022|
- Cardiac Imaging biomarkers
- Cardiovascular Disease