Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) including sulindac sulfide are known to exert cancer chemopreventative activity in a range of cell lines. This activity has been shown to involve the upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1. It is also known that NSAIDs can act as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists and antagonists. In this study, we show that sulindac sulfide acts both as a PPARγ agonist and a PPARδ antagonist in an immortalized prostatic epithelial cell line (PNT1A). We utilized siRNA technology to show that PPARγ is required for both growth inhibition and p21WAF1/CIP1 upregulation in response to sulindac sulfide treatment in PNT1A cells. In addition, the overexpression of PPARδ partially rescued these cells from growth inhibition and also dramatically inhibited sulindac sulfide-mediated p21WAF1/CIP1 upregulation. Together these data identify a novel link between PPARγ/ PPARδ/p21WAF1/CIP1 and the cancer chemo-preventative properties of NSAIDs.
- Prostate cancer