Breast oedema following free flap breast reconstruction

Jennifer Greenhowe (Lead / Corresponding author), Christopher Stephen, Liusaidh McClymont, D. Alex Munnoch

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    1 Citation (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Objectives: Breast oedema causes significant morbidity and is historically difficult to quantify. The aim of this study was to identify changes in breast tissue water content from pre-operative levels in the native breast to post-operative levels in mastectomy skin flaps and free flaps in the reconstructed breast.

    Materials and methods: One hundred patients undergoing unilateral mastectomy and immediate free flap breast reconstruction were examined pre-operatively and at three post-operative appointments. A validated moisture meter was used to record dermal water percentages of each breast quadrant and areola in both breasts pre-operatively, then four quadrants of both breasts plus the unaffected areola and free flap at each post-operative review.

    Results and conclusion: Native skin of the reconstructed breast showed significant, persistent increase in MWC from 45.6% ± 0.5% to 72.8% ± 0.9% at 1st follow up (p < 0.001), decreasing only to 67.6% ± 0.8% by 3rd follow up. There was a marked difference (p < 0.001) in the mean water content (MWC) of the initial free flap (39.7% ± 0.6%) compared to 61.8% ± 1.7% at 1st follow up, then 55.1% ± 1.4% at 2nd and 53.7% ± 1.3% at 3rd follow ups. The unaffected breast showed a small but significant increase in MWC of all quadrants at subsequent follow up (greatest difference 3.1% at 1st follow up). This patient group demonstrates significant, persistent oedema of the reconstructed breast, which can be monitored using a non-invasive moisture meter.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)73-76
    Number of pages4
    JournalBreast
    Volume34
    Early online date17 May 2017
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Aug 2017

    Fingerprint

    Mammaplasty
    Free Tissue Flaps
    Edema
    Breast
    Water
    Nipples
    Mastectomy
    Skin
    Appointments and Schedules
    Morbidity

    Keywords

    • Body Water
    • Breast
    • Breast Diseases
    • Breast Neoplasms
    • Edema
    • Female
    • Free Tissue Flaps
    • Humans
    • Mammaplasty
    • Mastectomy
    • Postoperative Period
    • Preoperative Period
    • Skin
    • Journal Article

    Cite this

    Greenhowe, J., Stephen, C., McClymont, L., & Munnoch, D. A. (2017). Breast oedema following free flap breast reconstruction. Breast, 34, 73-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.breast.2017.05.002
    Greenhowe, Jennifer ; Stephen, Christopher ; McClymont, Liusaidh ; Munnoch, D. Alex. / Breast oedema following free flap breast reconstruction. In: Breast. 2017 ; Vol. 34. pp. 73-76.
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    abstract = "Objectives: Breast oedema causes significant morbidity and is historically difficult to quantify. The aim of this study was to identify changes in breast tissue water content from pre-operative levels in the native breast to post-operative levels in mastectomy skin flaps and free flaps in the reconstructed breast.Materials and methods: One hundred patients undergoing unilateral mastectomy and immediate free flap breast reconstruction were examined pre-operatively and at three post-operative appointments. A validated moisture meter was used to record dermal water percentages of each breast quadrant and areola in both breasts pre-operatively, then four quadrants of both breasts plus the unaffected areola and free flap at each post-operative review.Results and conclusion: Native skin of the reconstructed breast showed significant, persistent increase in MWC from 45.6{\%} ± 0.5{\%} to 72.8{\%} ± 0.9{\%} at 1st follow up (p < 0.001), decreasing only to 67.6{\%} ± 0.8{\%} by 3rd follow up. There was a marked difference (p < 0.001) in the mean water content (MWC) of the initial free flap (39.7{\%} ± 0.6{\%}) compared to 61.8{\%} ± 1.7{\%} at 1st follow up, then 55.1{\%} ± 1.4{\%} at 2nd and 53.7{\%} ± 1.3{\%} at 3rd follow ups. The unaffected breast showed a small but significant increase in MWC of all quadrants at subsequent follow up (greatest difference 3.1{\%} at 1st follow up). This patient group demonstrates significant, persistent oedema of the reconstructed breast, which can be monitored using a non-invasive moisture meter.",
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    Greenhowe, J, Stephen, C, McClymont, L & Munnoch, DA 2017, 'Breast oedema following free flap breast reconstruction', Breast, vol. 34, pp. 73-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.breast.2017.05.002

    Breast oedema following free flap breast reconstruction. / Greenhowe, Jennifer (Lead / Corresponding author); Stephen, Christopher; McClymont, Liusaidh; Munnoch, D. Alex.

    In: Breast, Vol. 34, 08.2017, p. 73-76.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    T1 - Breast oedema following free flap breast reconstruction

    AU - Greenhowe, Jennifer

    AU - Stephen, Christopher

    AU - McClymont, Liusaidh

    AU - Munnoch, D. Alex

    N1 - no funding

    PY - 2017/8

    Y1 - 2017/8

    N2 - Objectives: Breast oedema causes significant morbidity and is historically difficult to quantify. The aim of this study was to identify changes in breast tissue water content from pre-operative levels in the native breast to post-operative levels in mastectomy skin flaps and free flaps in the reconstructed breast.Materials and methods: One hundred patients undergoing unilateral mastectomy and immediate free flap breast reconstruction were examined pre-operatively and at three post-operative appointments. A validated moisture meter was used to record dermal water percentages of each breast quadrant and areola in both breasts pre-operatively, then four quadrants of both breasts plus the unaffected areola and free flap at each post-operative review.Results and conclusion: Native skin of the reconstructed breast showed significant, persistent increase in MWC from 45.6% ± 0.5% to 72.8% ± 0.9% at 1st follow up (p < 0.001), decreasing only to 67.6% ± 0.8% by 3rd follow up. There was a marked difference (p < 0.001) in the mean water content (MWC) of the initial free flap (39.7% ± 0.6%) compared to 61.8% ± 1.7% at 1st follow up, then 55.1% ± 1.4% at 2nd and 53.7% ± 1.3% at 3rd follow ups. The unaffected breast showed a small but significant increase in MWC of all quadrants at subsequent follow up (greatest difference 3.1% at 1st follow up). This patient group demonstrates significant, persistent oedema of the reconstructed breast, which can be monitored using a non-invasive moisture meter.

    AB - Objectives: Breast oedema causes significant morbidity and is historically difficult to quantify. The aim of this study was to identify changes in breast tissue water content from pre-operative levels in the native breast to post-operative levels in mastectomy skin flaps and free flaps in the reconstructed breast.Materials and methods: One hundred patients undergoing unilateral mastectomy and immediate free flap breast reconstruction were examined pre-operatively and at three post-operative appointments. A validated moisture meter was used to record dermal water percentages of each breast quadrant and areola in both breasts pre-operatively, then four quadrants of both breasts plus the unaffected areola and free flap at each post-operative review.Results and conclusion: Native skin of the reconstructed breast showed significant, persistent increase in MWC from 45.6% ± 0.5% to 72.8% ± 0.9% at 1st follow up (p < 0.001), decreasing only to 67.6% ± 0.8% by 3rd follow up. There was a marked difference (p < 0.001) in the mean water content (MWC) of the initial free flap (39.7% ± 0.6%) compared to 61.8% ± 1.7% at 1st follow up, then 55.1% ± 1.4% at 2nd and 53.7% ± 1.3% at 3rd follow ups. The unaffected breast showed a small but significant increase in MWC of all quadrants at subsequent follow up (greatest difference 3.1% at 1st follow up). This patient group demonstrates significant, persistent oedema of the reconstructed breast, which can be monitored using a non-invasive moisture meter.

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    KW - Breast Neoplasms

    KW - Edema

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    KW - Free Tissue Flaps

    KW - Humans

    KW - Mammaplasty

    KW - Mastectomy

    KW - Postoperative Period

    KW - Preoperative Period

    KW - Skin

    KW - Journal Article

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    DO - 10.1016/j.breast.2017.05.002

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    Greenhowe J, Stephen C, McClymont L, Munnoch DA. Breast oedema following free flap breast reconstruction. Breast. 2017 Aug;34:73-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.breast.2017.05.002