C11orf70 Mutations Disrupting the Intraflagellar Transport-Dependent Assembly of Multiple Axonemal Dyneins Cause Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia

Mahmoud R. Fassad, Amelia Shoemark, Pierrick le Borgne, France Koll, Mitali Patel, Mellisa Dixon, Jane Hayward, Charlotte Richardson, Emily Frost, Lucy Jenkins, Thomas Cullup, Eddie M. K. Chung, Michel Lemullois, Anne Aubusson-Fleury, Claire Hogg, David R. Mitchell, Anne-Marie Tassin, Hannah M. Mitchison (Lead / Corresponding author)

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    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous disorder characterized by destructive respiratory disease and laterality abnormalities due to randomized left-right body asymmetry. PCD is mostly caused by mutations affecting the core axoneme structure of motile cilia that is essential for movement. Genes that cause PCD when mutated include a group that encode proteins essential for the assembly of the ciliary dynein motors and the active transport process that delivers them from their cytoplasmic assembly site into the axoneme. We screened a cohort of affected individuals for disease-causing mutations using a targeted next generation sequencing panel and identified two unrelated families (three affected children) with mutations in the uncharacterized C11orf70 gene (official gene name CFAP300). The affected children share a consistent PCD phenotype from early life with laterality defects and immotile respiratory cilia displaying combined loss of inner and outer dynein arms (IDA+ODA). Phylogenetic analysis shows C11orf70 is highly conserved, distributed across species similarly to proteins involved in the intraflagellar transport (IFT)-dependant assembly of axonemal dyneins. Paramecium C11orf70 RNAi knockdown led to combined loss of ciliary IDA+ODA with reduced cilia beating and swim velocity. Tagged C11orf70 in Paramecium and Chlamydomonas localizes mainly in the cytoplasm with a small amount in the ciliary component. IFT139/TTC21B (IFT-A protein) and FLA10 (IFT kinesin) depletion experiments show that its transport within cilia is IFT dependent. During ciliogenesis, C11orf70 accumulates at the ciliary tips in a similar distribution to the IFT-B protein IFT46. In summary, C11orf70 is essential for assembly of dynein arms and C11orf70 mutations cause defective cilia motility and PCD.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)956-972
    Number of pages17
    JournalAmerican Journal of Human Genetics
    Issue number5
    Publication statusPublished - 3 May 2018


    • primary ciliary dyskinesia
    • Kartagener syndrome
    • mutation
    • intraflagellar transport
    • dynein
    • Paramecium


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