This contribution seeks to explore how complex adaptive theory can be applied at the conceptual level to unpack Triple Helix models. We use two cases to examine this issue - the Finnish Strategic Centres for Science, Technology & Innovation (SHOKs) and the Canadian Business-led Networks of Centres of Excellence (BL-NCE). Both types of centres are organisational structures that aspire to be business-led, with a considerable portion of their activities driven by (industrial) users? interests and requirements. Reflecting on the centres' activities along three dimensions - knowledge generation, consensus building and innovation - we contend that conceptualising the Triple Helix from a process perspective will improve the dialogue between stakeholders and shareholders.
Grant, K., Meyer, M., & Kuusisto, J. (2014). Can processes make relationships work? The Triple Helix between structure and action. Prometheus: Critical Studies in Innovation, 32(4), 351-368. https://doi.org/10.1080/08109028.2015.1110425